Welcome to the Single National Curriculum (SNC) Feedback Portal.

Here you will find a DRAFT version of updates to the curriculum for ECCE to Grade 12. Please give your feedback on all material shared.

After feedback is incorporated, SNC for Grades 6-8 will be notified for implementation in the Academic Year starting in 2022. First round of feedback for these grades is due on December 20, 2021.

An updated curriculum for ECCE to Grade 5 and for Grades 9-12 will be notified later, for implementation in the Academic Year starting 2023.



General Science

Progression Grid (General Science) Grades 4-8

Progression of Learning Levels: Thinking and Working Scientifically

By the end of Grade 5 students should be able to:

By the end of Grade 8 students should be able to:

Scientific enquiry: purpose and planning

  • Ask questions to begin scientific enquiry.

  • Know the features of the five main types of scientific enquiry (observe over time, identify and classify, compare and contrast, air test, research-by finding information).

  • Make predictions

  • Plan fair test investigations, identify and control variables.

  • Describe risks when planning practical work.

Carrying out scientific enquiry

  • Sort, group and classify objects, materials and living things through testing, observation and using secondary information.

  • Begin to use a simple key based on easily observed differences.

  • Choose equipment to carry out scientific investigations.

  • Decide when observations and measurements need to be repeated.

  • Take measurements and record them.

Scientific enquiry: analysis, evaluation and conclusions

  • Describe patterns in results.

  • Make a conclusion from results informed by reasoning.

Scientific enquiry: purpose and planning

  • Identify whether a given hypothesis is testable.

  • Make predictions of likely outcomes for a scientific enquiry.

  • Plan a range of investigations of different types, while considering variables appropriately.

  • Know the meaning of hazard symbols, and consider them when planning practical work.



Carrying out scientific enquiry

  • Sort, group and classify phenomena, objects, materials and organisms through testing, observation, using secondary information, and making and using keys.

  • Decide what equipment is required to carry out an investigation and know the parts of a simple microscope and its use.

  • Take precise measurements, explaining why accuracy and precision are important.

  • Carry out practical work safely.

  • Evaluate a range of secondary information sources for their relevance and know that some sources may be biased.

  • Collect and record observations and/or measurements in an appropriate form.



Scientific enquiry: analysis, evaluation and conclusions

  • Describe trends and patterns in results.

  • Make conclusions by interpreting results informed by reasoning.

  • Evaluate experiments and investigations, and suggest improvements, explaining any proposed changes.

  • Present and interpret observations and measurements appropriately.

Engineering Design Process - STEM/ STEAM

Models and representations

  • Use models to show scientific ideas and what happens in science.

  • Use a variety of technologies following the design process to identify and solve problems. by creating new, useful or imaginative solutions to challenges/ enquiry questions (Advanced SLO)

  • Apply mathematical concepts (for example; percentages and ratios) to analyze data and present the data collected in the form of graphs, charts, scatter diagrams and tables.


Engineering Design Process - STEM/ STEAM

Models and representations

  • Describe the strengths and limitations of a model.

  • Use symbols and formulae to represent scientific ideas.

  • Use a variety of technologies within a design process to identify and solve problems by creating new, useful or imaginative solutions to challenges/ enquiry questions.

  • Apply mathematical concepts (for example; percentages and ratios) to analyze data and present the data collected in the form of graphs, charts and tables.

Science in context:

  • Describe how science is used in their local area.

  • Use science to support points when discussing issues, situations or actions.

  • Identify people who use science, including professionally, in their area and describe how they use science.

  • Discuss how the use of science and technology can have positive and negative environmental effects on their local area.

Science in context:

  • Describe how science is applied across societies and industries, and in research.

  • Evaluate issues which involve and/or require scientific understanding.

  • Describe how people develop and use scientific understanding.

  • Discuss how the uses of science can have a global environmental impact.






Grade-wise Progression

Domain: Life Science

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7

Grade 8

1. Organisms - Common life processes of plants: Life processes common to plants and animals include nutrition, growth, movement and reproduction.


Benchmark I


By the end of grade V students should be able to:

  • Compare and contrast life processes of familiar animals and plants.

  • Compare life cycles of selected animals and familiar plants to describe the stages in their life cycles.

Benchmark I



By the end of grade VIII students should be able to:

  • Research and describe the structure and function of specialized plant and animal cells including cell division.

  • Describe how the genetic information stored in DNA, received from parents, determine our physical characteristics.








Know that plants and animals need energy to grow, live and be healthy, and plants get their energy from light (photosynthesis) while animals get their energy from eating plants and other animals.



Understand that living things grow, take in nutrients, breathe, reproduce, eliminate waste, and die.



Recognize that food provides animals with the materials they need for body repair and growth and the energy they need to maintain body warmth and for motion.












Recognize changes in the life cycles of selected animals. (Butterfly, fish, frog).





Explore the requirements of plants for life and growth (air, light, water, nutrients from soil, and room to grow) and how they vary from plant to plant. Investigate the process of photosynthesis and demonstrate understanding of why plants are vital to sustaining life on Earth.







Recognize, compare, and contrast the life cycles of familiar plants (e.g., trees and beans).





Explore the role flowers play in the life cycle of flowering plants, including pollination, fruit and seed formation and seed dispersal.





Describe seed germination and know that seeds require water and an appropriate temperature to germinate.







Recognize cells as the basic unit of life that are organized into tissues, organs, systems and organisms.

Arrange and rank different levels of cellular organizations - cells to tissues, organs and organisms

Relate the structures of some common cells (nerve, muscle, epithelium and blood cells) to their functions.


























Show an understanding that living things reproduce to ensure continuity of their kind and that many characteristics of an organism are passed on from parents to offspring.


Recognize Genetics as the study of Heredity, and understand and define heredity as the transfer of genetic information that specifies structure, characteristics and function, from parents to offspring.

Reflect on their physical traits such as eye color, skin color, hair color and texture, height etc. and associate them with traits they see in their parents.



Identify the structures present in an animal cell and plant cell as seen under a simple microscope and relate them to their functions.

Sketch the animal and plant cells and label key organelles in each.

Compare and contrast an animal cell and plant cell by preparing slides using onion peels/cheek cells


Understand the concept of genes, alleles and chromosomes and relate them to how genetic characteristics are inherited.

Differentiate between phenotype and genotype.

Advanced





Explain how nucleic acids store and express genetic information and that the specific traits and characteristics of organisms are determined by their DNA, genes and the specific proteins their cells produce.

Describe the composition and structure of DNA.·

Design a model of DNA to demonstrate its structure, functions and various components.





Recognize that there are dominant and recessive genes, and that traits are inherited.

Advanced





Illustrate the differences between inherited traits & instincts and learned behaviors.

Evaluate with specific examples and case studies, if human behavior is learned or acquired.





Relate the concept of mutation to learners understanding of variation and adaptation.

Explain how mutations - natural or induced - can alter a gene, create new mutations, introduce new variations and affect survivability.

Advanced





Describe cell division and its types – mitosis and meiosis, and relate them to the passage of genetic information through reproduction.

Explain the process of mitosis and meiosis, and identify their key phases.



Synthesize how heredity and cell division interact to reproduce genetic traits and characteristics across populations.

2. Organisms - Structure and Functions (Plants) - How plants use their body structures to survive?

Benchmark II:



By the end of grade V, students will be expected to:



  • Explain how plants use their body structures to survive and identify the parts of plant transport system and describe their functions.

  • Describe the parts of the flower and their functions.




Benchmark II:



By the end of grade VIII, students will be expected to:



  • Explain the root and shoot system of plants emphasizing the process of photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration.

  • Compare and contrast the artificial and natural reproduction in plants and investigate ways in which artificial propagation of plants can lead to food production and food security.


Know that not all plants produce flowers. Classify the plants into two major groups (flowering, non-flowering), and give examples of each group.


Describe the different types of reproduction of plants.

Compare and contrast types of reproduction (sexual and asexual) in plants.

Distinguish between artificial and natural asexual reproduction in plants. (Budding, grafting, Bulbs, Tuber, Runners, cutting, and layering)

Inquire and express how artificial propagation can lead to better quality yield in agriculture.


Identify and describe the functions of different parts of flowering plants: roots, stem/ trunk, leaves and flowers.



  • Explain the root and shoot system in plants. Label different parts of leaf, stem and root (external and internal structure).


Investigate the way in which water is transported within plants. **Identify the parts of the plant transport system and describe their functions.

-stem, -leaf, -root

Note:

- Recall of the relative positions of water and food carrying tubes is not required.

- The use of specific terms (“xylem” and “phloem”) is not required.



Predict the role of xylem and phloem in transport of water and food in plants by observing the cross section of the stem.




Define the process of photosynthesis and derive word equations for it; Know that plants require minerals to maintain healthy growth and life processes (limited to magnesium to make chlorophyll and nitrates to make protein).

  • 4. Explain that the structure of leaves is adapted to the process of photosynthesis.






Identify the parts of a flower and describe their functions (limited to petals, sepals, anthers, filaments, stamens, stigma, style, carpel, and ovary).





Identify various professions associated with this unit of science, in their local area. For e.g. botanists, farmers, gardeners, florists etc.







  • Describe the process of respiration and write word equations for it. Compare and contrast the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.





  • Investigate the phenomena of transpiration and its importance in a plant (wind, temperature, light, humidity affecting rate of transpiration in plants).





  • Exploring and applying natural raise of water based on the principle of transpiration.


3. Organisms - Structure and Functions, (Animals)

Benchmark III:



By the end of grade V, students will be able to:



  • Explain how organ systems work together to help human bodies get what they need and carry out life processes.

  • Describe that animals receive different types of information through their senses and respond by processing it in their brains.




Benchmark III:



By the end of grade VIII, students will be able to:



  • Compare and contrast the transport system of animals and plants.

  • Explore and explain the structure and function of major human organ systems and relate them to the basic biological processes required to sustain life.

  • Explain how brain control and coordinate with other organ system.





Know that the human body has a number of systems, each with its own function. Recognize the integration of the different systems (digestive, respiratory and circulatory) in carrying out life processes.

Note: Detailed knowledge of the respiratory system (e.g. alveoli) and circulatory system (e.g. heart chambers and valves) is not required.


  • Compare and draw connections between the transport systems in plants and humans.








Use a model to describe that animals receive different types of information through their senses, process the information in their brain and respond to the information in different ways.



Extend their understanding of human systems to explain the organs, functions and processes of the human nervous system.

Sketch and label a diagram of the human nervous system.

Relate how the brain works as the control station of a human body.

Identify the three major parts of the brain - cerebrum, cerebellum and the brainstem, and define their various functions.

Identify and narrate experiences where they used their instincts to respond to a certain situation or stimuli.


Describe the human digestive system including the simple functions of the organs involved (mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine)



Recognize that humans have different types of teeth (molar, premolar, incisors, canine) in the skull and know their functions in digestion of food.

5. Know that many vertebrates have a digestive system similar to humans.

State the importance of digestion in the human body and describe physical and chemical digestion.



Sequence the main regions of

Alimentary canal, its associated organs and describe the functions of different parts of the alimentary canal.



Briefly describe the role of enzymes in digestion.




**Describe the human respiratory system in terms of oxygen from the air moving into the blood in the lungs and know that many vertebrates have a similar respiratory system.


Recognize that living organisms have a complex transport system for transfer of various matter across the body.


Describe the structure of the cerebrum, its division into two hemispheres (left and right) and the role of each hemisphere in the control of the body.



**Identify and name the main parts of the human circulatory system, and describe the functions of the heart, blood vessels and blood.

Conclude that blood transports the products of digestion to other parts of the body and the undigested products get egested/defecated.

Explain the processes of breathing and respiration and illustrate how air moves in and out of our body.

Differentiate between the processes of respiration and breathing.

Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

Trace the path of air in and out of the body and how it converts during the process of respiration. Hypothesize how exercises of varying intensity (from rest to high-intensity interval training) would impact their pulse rate, test their hypothesis, calculate their pulse rate and record their findings.

Explain and represent how messages flow through the body from and to the brain, and how the brain collaborates with the sensory organs to regulate this process.

Map the various steps in the transmission of messages through the body and to the brain.

Describe the role and function of neurons in transmitting messages through the body.

Predict what would happen if a nerve connection broke.





Describe the role and function of major organs in the human respiratory system including trachea, lungs and alveoli (air sacs)


Illustrate behaviors and practices that support maintenance of brain health, and relate them to their daily schedule and activities.

Create a plan of activities and exercises they can do to maintain a healthy brain.


Describe some of the important functions of the skeleton and label the common names of major bones of the human skeleton. (Skull, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, ribs).


Describe the structure and function of the human heart.

Sketch and label the human circulatory system

Match various body functions with the relevant part of the brain that controls or regulates them (For instance, associating breathing with the brain stem)


*Know that bones move because of the attached pair of muscles contraction and relaxation.



*Note: limit to arm muscles only biceps and triceps.



Explain how blood circulates in the human body through a network of vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries), and transports gases, nutrients, wastes and heat.

Compare and contrast arteries, veins and capillaries.

Describe the composition of blood and the functions of red cells, white cells, platelets and plasma.




4. Human health and disease




Benchmark IV:



By the end of grade V, students will be expected to:



  • Distinguish between the various food components to understand the concept of balanced diet and its impact on Human health.

  • Differentiate between contagious and non-contagious diseases and suggest measures that can control the spread of diseases.

  • Recognize common diseases caused by microorganisms and discuss measures to prevent them.

Benchmark IV:



By the end of grade VIII, students will be expected to:



  • Describe the causes and prevention of infectious diseases and how the natural immune system responds.

  • Understand the constituents of balanced diet and analyze the consequences dietary deficiencies which lead to different disorders.




Recognize everyday behaviors that promote good health (e.g., a balanced diet, drinking clean water, exercising regularly, brushing teeth, getting enough sleep)



Identify common food sources included in a balanced diet (e.g., fruits, vegetables, grains, milk and meat group) and their relative proportions.



Identify the constituents of a balanced diet for humans as including protein, carbohydrates, fats and oils, water, minerals (limited to calcium and iron) and vitamins (limited to A, C and D), and describe the functions of these nutrients.



Identify the essential nutrients, their chemical composition and food sources.



Identify and describe essential nutrients deficiency disorders.



Recognize that a healthy diet contains a balance of foodstuffs.



Correlate diet and fitness.




Differentiate between contagious and non-contagious diseases and relate the transmission of common communicable diseases to human contact and explain some methods of preventing their transmission.

Define and describe main groups of microorganisms (bacteria, virus and fungi) and give examples of each.

Recognize some common diseases of each group (bacteria, virus and fungi) caused by microorganisms.



Recognize that microorganisms get transmitted into humans and spread infectious diseases.






Describe the three types of immunity in humans - innate, adaptive, and passive.

Illustrate how adaptive immunity develops over time.

Identify the various types of pathogens that cause infectious diseases.

Differentiate between infectious and non-infectious diseases

Explain the various defenses that the body has against pathogens, before the innate immune system is activated.

Describe the parts of the immunity system and how they function to produce an immune response.

Differentiate between specific and non-specific immune responses.

Visualize and map the various lines of defense the human body has against pathogens and ideate how they can add additional layers of defense (such as wearing masks, using sanitizers etc.)

Propose some common strategies for strengthening their immune system.


Understand the value of clean drinking water and inquire about the factors that generally make it unclean and explore a few ways that can help make water clean and suitable for drinking (water filtration and boiling).


Describe how good hygiene and a range of other measures can control the spread of diseases transmitted in water, food and body fluids, and describe ways to avoid being bitten by insects.


Briefly describe some major digestive disorders.

Explain how infectious diseases such as Hepatitis, COVID-19, Typhoid, Whooping cough, Measles and Dengue are caused / contracted, how they are tested and diagnosed, and how they can be prevented.

Estimate how quickly a disease is likely to spread using the base number of infected population and the daily infection rate.

Relate the cause and effect in the contraction of an infection.

Predict how quickly diseases are likely to spread based on how they are transmitted (air, skin-skin contact, bodily fluids like blood, contact with animals etc.)

Ideate and write ways in which communities of people can safeguard against the spread of infectious diseases.



Explain the effects of too much sugar in their diet and how it can lead to health problems.





Recognize the items in a first aid box.



Use the following instruments to measure health indicators:

(i) stethoscope

(ii) thermometer

(iii) blood pressure equipment









Recognize the advantages of microorganisms.




Compare the structure and functions of different types of teeth

8. Investigate the causes and prevention of tooth decay and gum diseases.



Identify people who use science, including professionally in their local area. For e.g. nutritionists,
restaurant chefs, dietitians, food manufacturers, dairy farmers, bakers, water filtration companies etc.





5. Ecosystems - Conditions for life on Earth/ Biodiversity and interdependence

Benchmark V:



By the end of grade V, students will be expected to:



  • Use classification keys to identify plants and animals in the ecosystem.

  • Explore the interaction of living things with biotic and abiotic factors in the ecosystem.

  • Use diagrams to explain how energy flows in an ecosystem.

  • Identify the causes and effects of environmental pollution and suggest measures to reduce it.

Benchmark V:



By the end of grade VIII, students will be expected to:



  • Explain the interdependence of non-living and living components in an ecosystem.

  • Describe the energy flow and nutrient cycles in an ecosystem.

  • Communicate solutions that will reduce the impact of humans on land, water, air and/or other living things in the local environment.


Recognize that ecosystems consist of habitats (e.g. forests, ponds, rivers, grasslands and deserts) that provide living things with what they need.

2. Explore and use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living things in their local and wider environment.

Explain how energy is passed through a food chain, and how to represent this in an energy flow diagram.







Describe the role of living things in cycling oxygen and carbon through an ecosystem, citing the processes of respiration, photosynthesis and combustion.

Relate how oxygen and carbon cycles are complementary processes that bring balance and symmetry to life on earth.

Describe the relationship of the Sun as an energy source for all living things. Explain biotic (plants, animals and humans) and abiotic factors (light, temperature, soil and water) and their linkages.

Explain how human activities add toxic substances to an ecosystem.




Describe global warming and explain how threats to the carbon-oxygen balance such as overpopulation, reliance on fossil fuels, and deforestation are contributing to global warming and climate change.

Analyze the way these biotic and abiotic constituents create a balance to sustain any ecosystem.



Advanced

Investigate the role of microorganisms in producing or breaking down/ decomposing materials.




Represent how energy flows between organisms who are producers, consumers and decomposers using energy pyramids

Describe how energy flows from producers to consumers, and how only part of the energy flows from one level of the pyramid to the next.

Classify or sort various organisms on an energy pyramid, and make explicit their criteria or key for classification.

Describe food chains as being made of producers and consumers and classify consumers as herbivores, omnivores, carnivores, predators, prey and/or prey.









Recognize and explain that some living things in an ecosystem compete with each other for food and space. Recognize the value of a balanced ecosystem.

Know that some substances in our environment can be toxic and these substances move through the food webs/ chains and can be harmful for living things.

Describe variation and adaptation in living organisms and how they contribute to diversity.

Explain and illustrate the differences between variation and adaptation.

Recognize that variations in physical and behavioral characteristics among individuals in a population give some individuals an advantage in surviving and passing on their characteristics to their offspring.

Observe and infer forms of variations in plants and demonstrate how variation exists within species.

Explain how different adaptations in individuals of the same species have affected survivability.

Identify sources of variation including differences in the lifestyles and habitats of individuals.

Illustrate through specific examples how animals and plants have structurally (for instance, succulents survival in deserts, the arctic fox etc.) or behaviorally (for instance, migration, bird calls) adapted to increase their chances of survival.

Differentiate between structural and behavioral adaptation

Differentiate between continuous and discontinuous variation.

Design a research study, analyze data and compile a report on variation in their class cohort on the basis of continuous variables (height, heart rate, length of finger) and discontinuous variables (blood group, eye color, ability to roll tongue etc.).

Reflect on behavioral adaptations humans can make for the collective survival of our planet, and design a plan of action


Draw a food web diagram to illustrate the food relationships between organisms

Describe and illustrate through examples key ecological relationships between organisms, including competition, predation and symbiosis.

Contextualize the food web to include organisms that are visible in their immediate ecology and depict food relationships between them.

Predict how changes in an ecosystem (e.g., changes in the water supply, the introduction of a new population, hunting, migration) can affect available resources, and thus the balance among populations.

Hypothesize what would happen in the ecosystem if the population of one of the participants in different ecological relationships is affected.

Portray how changes in the ecosystem can affect available resources that various segments of the human population are competing for, leading to widening inequality and gaps in the quality of life of various populations.

Analyze why variation of traits, characteristics and learned behaviors is beneficial for a species.





















Recognize that fossils can help us understand animals from long ago and their habitats.

Draw conclusions about the relative length of time major groups of organisms have existed on Earth using fossil evidence





Explain ways in which human behavior (e.g., replanting forests, reducing air and water pollution, protecting endangered species) can have positive effects on the local environment.

Explore how human behavior (e.g., allowing factory waste water to enter water systems, burning fossil fuels that release greenhouse gases and pollutants into the air, using brick kilns, burning wheat) can have negative effects on the environment.

Ideate ways they can collectively reduce their reliance on fossil fuels, and plan an individual and communal plan of action to mitigate global warming. (e.g. communal interventions could be reforestation, pooling of fuel-dependent resources, switching to renewable energy like solar panels; individual could be recycling and reusing materials and resources, reducing energy consumption at home etc.)

Describe how plants and animals are adapted to environments that are hot, cold, wet and/ or dry and describe common physical adaptations of predators and prey.






Explore how human actions such as urbanization and population growth can cause deforestation and affect food chains in an ecosystem.

Explore the main causes of water, air and land pollution in the local and wider community



Explain the effects of water, air and land pollution. (Unclean/toxic water, smoke, smog, excess CO2/other gases, open garbage dumps, industrial waste etc.) on the environment and life.



Discuss and explain the effects of burning fossil fuels and releasing greenhouse gases in air.



Differentiate between biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials and their impact on the environment.



Suggest ways to reduce use of non-biodegradable materials, and lower the reliance on micro plastics / single-use plastics at home and in schools.




Explain that when a habitat changes some organisms survive well, some survive less well and others cannot survive at all.

Identify people who use science, including professionally in their local area. For e.g. industrialists, manufacturers, environmentalists.




6. Biotechnology


Benchmark VI:



By the end of grade VIII, students will be expected to:



  • Describe the structure of DNA and its modification and application in biotechnology in various fields.





Define Biotechnology as the use of living cells and organisms in products and processes that can improve the quality of life.

Relate how biotechnology draws on various disciplines in science and technology to produce sustainable, ethically-compliant and economically viable solutions to complex problems.

Illustrate how biotechnology is a discipline/ field that has the potential to transform how we live.





Discuss specific examples of the applications of biotechnology by identifying real problems, presenting the biotechnological intervention, the intended outcome of the intervention, and its short and long term effects on humans, other living organisms and the environment.

Explore applications of biotechnology in the Pakistani context and their effects on the people and the environment of Pakistan over time. Illustrative examples: Bread-making, making of yogurt and cheese, vaccines for immunization, insulin and interferon production etc.

Analyze the specific uses of biotechnology in the agriculture sector - transgenic crop plants, pest control strategies, mass propagation etc.

Assess the use of biotechnology in food sciences in producing foods with higher nutritional value and improved taste and quality.[How fermentation has been improved by genetically modified organisms or the introduction of certain genes to raise iron content in rice, can be taken as examples]

Evaluate the use of biotechnology in public health, including the use of vaccines, gene therapy, insulin production, and stem cell-research and the ethical ramifications of these applications.

Imagine how bioremediation and bioreactors can be used to improve waste management in Pakistan.





Articulate why ethical standards are particularly important in regulating commercial or experimental use of biotechnology.

Narrate the useful or harmful effects of biotechnology on living organisms or their ecology, in the form of a story.









































Domain: Physical Science



Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7

Grade 8

  • Matter and Its Characteristics


  • Physical and Chemical Changes of Matter




  • Elements and compound

  • Matters as particles

  • Mixtures

  • Energy

  • Reflection of light

  • Electricity


  • Structure of an Atom

  • Chemical bonds

  • Physical and chemical changes

  • Solutions

  • Heat and temperature

  • Force and motion

  • Magnetism

  • Periodic Table

  • Chemical reactions

  • Acids, alkalis and salts

  • Waves and types

  • Refraction of light

  • Effects of forces

  • Electricity


Benchmark VII:

By the end of grade V, students will be able to:

  • Investigate matter and explore its chemical and physical properties through daily life examples.

  • Compare the properties of different states of matter and identify the conditions that cause matter to change states.












Benchmark VII:

By the end of grade VIII, students will be able to:

  • Analyze the complexity of matter and energy, particle model of matter, different states of matter and its conversion from one state to another.

  • Investigate mixtures and apply the separating techniques.

  • Compare the systematic organization of elements in the periodic table, constructing formula and forming chemical bonds.

  • Distinguish between physical and chemical reactions, types of chemical reactions and acids, bases and salts.










4PS1. Identify and describe three states of matter (i.e., a solid has a definite shape and volume, a liquid has a definite volume but not a definite shape, and a gas has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume)



















Describe the structure of matter in terms of particles (i.e., atoms and molecules).

Describe and draw the structure of an atom in terms of electrons, protons and neutrons.




Describe an atom as an electrically neutral entity.




Differentiate between atomic number and mass number.




-Determine the atomic number and mass number of elements on the basis of the number of protons, electrons and neutrons.




Calculate the number of electrons in a given orbit using the 2n2 formula.





Draw atomic structures of elements in the periodic table.

Recognize the arrangements of elements in periodic table in terms of periodicity.


Explain Periodicity of elements in periodic table.




Explain that the Periodic Table is a way to organize elements in a systematic order.




Define a Periodic table as a way of classifying the elements.



Recognize the names and symbols for some common elements (first 18 elements of periodic table)

Recognize periods and groups in the periodic table

Identify the names and location of elements in periods and groups.




Define Valency and explain the formation of ions.

Define atomic radius and reactivity of elements.






Relate reactivity of elements to their atomic sizes.

Advanced



Describe molecules as a combination of atoms (e.g., H₂O, O₂ & CO₂).





Explain that compounds are formed by different types of elements joining together chemically forming a new substance.

Write chemical formulae on the basis of valency of the constituent elements.

such as H₂O NaCl, NH3, CO₂, CO etc.




Distinguish between elements and compounds.





Explore the common elements and compounds in our daily life-(Carbon, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Aluminum, Water, Common salt, Sugar).



Compare and sort the materials on physical properties (mass, volume, states of matter, conduction of heat, electricity, density)


Observe the changes in materials that do not result in new materials (dissolving, crushing).





Properties of metals ( appearance, texture, color, density, conduction of heat and electricity)

Relate the properties to the uses of metals


Categorize elements into metals and non-metals based on their physical properties.



Identify properties of metals and non-metals.




Describe an atom as an electrically neutral entity


Advanced





5PS2. Matter can be changed from one state to another by heating or cooling

Compare the physical properties of matter in different states





Explain the particle theory of matter





Use particle model of matter to investigate the movement and arrangement of particles in three states of matter





explain diffusion and Brownian motion and how these provide evidence for the existence of the particles







Recognize that a chemical bond results from the attraction between atoms in a compound and that the atoms electrons are involved in this bonding.



Identify chemical reactions and give examples.







Define the law of conservation of mass and demonstrate the law with an experiment.





Write and balance chemical equations.






Distinguish between different types of reactions ( Combination, displacement, double displacement, combustion)





Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic reactions


Recognize the importance of exothermic and endothermic reactions in daily life.





Design a car that is powered solely by a chemical reaction and can travel 25 feet (STEAM)





Separate water into hydrogen and oxygen using electrolysis (STEAM)






Identify and practice single displacement reactions using the reactivity series

Advanced




Discuss formation of ionic bond as a result of electrostatic forces between atoms (e. g, NaCl)





Discuss types and formation of covalent bond as a result of mutual sharing of electrons between atoms (e. g, H₂, O₂, N₂)






Name certain ionic and covalent compounds






Draw cross and dot structures showing formation of ionic compounds and covalent compounds




5PS3. Identify observable changes in materials that make new materials with different properties (e.g., decaying, such as food spoiling; burning; rusting).


Differentiate between physical and chemical changes while considering daily life examples






Distinguish between reversible and non-reversible chemical changes.(Process of Ammonia formation)




Recognize that oxygen is needed in combustion, rusting and tarnishing




Explore methods of preventing rusting.




Relate uses of materials to their chemical properties (e.g., tendency to rust, flammability).




Evaluate Impact of combustion reaction on environment



4PS3.Discover that matter can be changed from one state to another by heating or cooling; describe changes in the state of water (i.e., melting, freezing, and boiling).


Explain the changes in states: melting, freezing, evaporation, condensation and sublimation using the particle model of matter

Relate uses of materials to their physical properties (e.g., melting point, boiling point, solubility, thermal conductivity).



5PS4. Compare physical and chemical changes


Distinguish between physical and chemical properties of matter.






Demonstrate that mixtures are formed when two or more substances mix with each other without the formation of a new substance.


Demonstrate the process of solution formation (using water as universal solvent).




Identify different types of mixtures



Distinguish among solute, solvent and solution; saturated and unsaturated solution.




Describe the difference between elements, compound and mixtures





Differentiate between pure substances and mixtures on the basis of their formation and composition





Describe alloys as mixtures of metals and some other elements.





Identify and explain examples of common mixtures from daily life.





Justify why air is considered as a mixture of gases.





Demonstrate ways of separating different mixtures.





Make a Slow sand filter (STEAM PROJECT)





Demonstrate the process of

solution formation (using water

as universal solvent)

Advanced

Define solubility.







Recognize that the amount of solute which dissolves in a given solvent has an upper limit.





Identify the factors which affect the solubility of a solute in a solvent and recognize the importance of these factors in homes and industries.



Strong and weak concentration of solutions.

Advanced



Explain what is meant by a concentrated and dilute solution.



Ways to accelerate the process of dissolving and provide reasoning (increasing temperature, stirring, breaking solid into smaller pieces)

Advanced




Identify ways of accelerating the process of dissolving materials in a given amount of water and provide reasoning (i.e increasing the temperature, stirring, and breaking the solid into smaller pieces increases the process of dissolving)





Explore the effectiveness of various cleaning solutions in cleaning tarnished and oxidized coins (STEAM)





Make a rock candy with sugar using crystal seeding technique (STEAM)






Classify acid, base and salts and give examples of each.





Identify the physical and chemical properties of acids, base and salts.





Define pH and its Ranges with reference to indicators





Interpret the pH scale and identify acids, base and salts.





Describe neutralization reaction with real life examples.





Observe and write the uses of acid, base and salts in daily life. .

Benchmark VIII:

By the end of grade V, students will be expected to:

  • Demonstrate the effects of heat on the states of matter.

  • Describe the forms of energy, simple energy transformation and the uses of energy.

  • Investigate and describe the flow of electric current in an electric circuit and relationship between electricity and magnetism.

  • Demonstrate the characteristics of light and sound with the physical phenomena.

Benchmark VIII:


By the end of grade VIII, students will be expected to:

  • Use evidence to construct an explanation on how energy is transferred, transformed, and conserved.

  • Compare types and properties of waves and explain how they interact with matter.

  • Investigate that light can be reflected, refracted, and/or absorbed.

  • Describe the relationships between: electricity and magnetism, static and current electricity, and series and parallel electrical circuits.


Identify different sources of energy ( Sun, wind, oil, gas, flowing water)


Recognize energy as physical quantity.




Recognize that energy is recognized for the movement, heating, and lightening


Relate potential energy, kinetic energy and mechanical energy




Describe the importance of energy conservation

Identify the role and responsibility of humans in energy conservation


State the law of conservation of energy and explain how the law applies to different situations





Compare the Renewable Energy Sources (wind, water, Sun and plants)and Non-Renewable Sources of energy (coal, natural gas, crude oil)






Identify the advantages of using renewable energy resources.






Assemble and demonstrate a solar panel to operate a small fan (STEAM)

Design and make a solar water heater (STEAM)

Make a Self -Running Energy generator (STEAM)

Make a solar powered desalinator (STEAM)






Identify its different forms (Potential energy, kinetic energy, chemical energy, light energy, electrical energy, sound energy, and thermal energy)-

Recognize that energy can change its form when it is transferred from one object to another

Advanced



Describe the properties of light (travels in straight line)


Describe a ray of light.

State the laws of reflection.

Interpret simple ray diagram to identify the path of light in reflection from plane mirror



Recognize that light is refracted at the boundary between air and any transparent material.


Distinguish between reflection and refraction of light with daily life examples.



Describe the application of refraction in daily life.





Describe different optical instruments using plane mirrors. (microscope, telescope, binocular)


Describe different optical instruments using curved mirrors.



Make a periscope using plane mirror strips.



Relate familiar physical phenomena (shadow, reflection, rainbow) to the behavior of light


Identify basic properties of light (i.e. speed, transmission through different media, absorption, reflection and dispersion).



Describe and show the dispersion of light through a glass prism.


Give examples of dispersion from daily life.


Relate the apparent color of objects to reflected or absorbed light.




Describe the difference between real and virtual images.

Describe and show how an image is formed by the plane mirror.

Describe the characteristics of image formed by plane mirror.

Advanced


Describe the difference between real and virtual images.






Describe and show how an image is formed by the plane mirror.




Describe the characteristics of image formed by plane mirror




Recognize the types of curved mirrors (concave and convex mirrors).




Describe the characteristics of image formed by concave mirror and convex mirror





* Analyse the values of refractive index of different materials

* Define lens

* Recognize the difference between convex lens and concave lens

* Analyse image formation by convex lens and concave lens

* Analyse image formation by concave lens

* Describe the application of refraction in daily life.

* Utilize Lenses in daily life (Applications)

Advanced


Identify natural, artificial light sources





Sort out luminous and non-luminous objects





Identify transparent, translucent and opaque objects




Demonstrate the production of sound

Demonstrate that sound can travel through different states of matter with different speed




Identify the different sounds on the basis of pitch and loudness

Describe the intensity of sound




Relate familiar physical phenomena (vibration objects) to the behavior of sound

Describe the structure and discuss the mechanism of the conduction sound waves through human ear





List the harmful effects of noise on human health





state the role of human in reducing noise pollution


Demonstrate that the warmer objects have higher temperature than cooler objects





Demonstrate changes occur when hotter objects are bring closer to the cooler objects



Describe the expansion of the three states of matter on heating and contraction on cooling in terms of particles.

Predict the effects of heat gain and heat loss.


Describe the ways to measure the temperature and its units



Compare all three scales of temperature (including inter-conversion of temperature scales)





Define the terms heat and temperature on the basis of kinetic molecular theory.





Explain why metals are good thermal conductors and fluids are poor conductors of heat using the particle model.





Construct the concept of heat conduction, convection and radiation by applying particle theory including daily life examples.





Identify the effects of thermal expansion and contraction with their applications in daily life.





State and explain the practical methods of thermal insulation used for constructing buildings


Recognize that electrical energy in a circuit can be transformed into other forms of energy( light, heat, sound)





Demonstrate that simple electrical systems (e.g., a flashlight) require a complete (unbroken) electrical pathway.

Describe flow of electric current in an electric circuit

Recognize electric current as a flow of charges.



Describe a simple circuit as a path for flow of charges.



Differentiate between open and closed circuits.




Draw circuit diagrams with symbols.

Advanced

Draw and interpret simple circuit diagrams (using symbols).





Describe the characteristics of series and parallel circuits.

Draw and construct a series and parallel circuits.





Identify the use of series and parallel electric circuits in daily life.





investigate the factors that affect the brightness of bulbs or speed of motors

* Number of batteries

* Number of Bulbs

* Type of wire

* Length of wire

* Thickness of wire





Explain the phenomena of static electricity in everyday life.





Assemble and operate trip wire security alarm system using simple items (STEAM)







Define voltage and state SI unit of voltage.






Define resistance and its SI unit CIRCUIT





Formulate that resistance is the ratio of voltage to current





Analyze current variation by introducing different resistance





Define electric power and state its unit





Recognize the electric power of various electric appliances.





Estimate the cost of using daily life electrical appliances (electricity bill)





Recognize the terms earth wire, fuse, circuit breaker





Analyze the danger of overloading and short circuit and identify the importance of earth wire, fuses and circuit breakers.





List precautionary measures to ensure the safe use of electricity.





Define a wave.


Compare the types of waves (mechanical and electromagnetic) with daily life examples


Distinguish between Longitudinal and transverse waves.


Identify;

1. water wave and Sound wave as mechanical wave

2. Light wave as electromagnetic wave


Define the terms;

Wavelength, frequency and time period of wave.


Relate :

1. pitch and frequency

2. Amplitude and frequency


Explain the factors affecting pitch and loudness of sound.


Compare and interpret waveforms in terms of pitch and loudness


Construct the inverse relation between time period and frequency


Relate common phenomenon(e.g. echo, hearing thunder after seeing lightning) to the properties of sound

Benchmark IX:

By the end of grade V, students will be expected to:

  • Investigate different types of forces and their effects.

  • Demonstrate the understanding that simple machines help make motion and work easier.

  • Apply scientific skills to solve problems and suggest solutions.

Benchmark IX:

By the end of grade VIII, students will be expected to:

  • Investigate and describe types of forces, including contact forces and forces acting at a distance, such as electrical, magnetic, and gravitational.

  • Measure and record data from experiments to produce speed-time graphs and interpret them to accurately describe motion.

  • Evaluate through investigation the relationship between pressure, force and area.


Describe forces and motion with examples



Identify uniform and non-uniform motion.




Describe the effect of force on changing the speed and direction of motion with time.




Define and state the SI unit of force


Represent and measure the motion of an object (position, speed, and direction of an object)



Formulate the relationship between speed, distance and time.





State SI unit of speed




Calculate average speed




interpret a distance-time graph


Describe different types of forces (friction, muscular forces, gravitational, magnetic, electric)





List uses of different types of forces in our daily life





Describe gravity as force



Give example of contact forces and non-contact forces


Recognize that forces (i.e., pushing and pulling) may cause an object to change its motion





Compare the effects of these forces of different strengths in the same or opposite directions acting on an object





Recognize that friction force works against the direction of motion (e.g., friction working against a push or a pull makes it more difficult to move an object along a surface).





Reasoning with evidence that friction can either be detrimental or useful under different circumstances (ways to reduce friction) Simple Machines





Recognize that simple machines, (e.g., levers, pulleys, gears, ramps) help make motion easier (e.g., make lifting things easier, reduce the amount of force required, change the distance, change the direction of the force).








Demonstrate that forces always work in action and reaction pairs (equal in magnitude, opposite in direction.

Recognize that several forces may act on an object which may or may not balance each other.





Examine the effect of an unbalanced force on an object.






Differentiate between floating and sinking objects in terms of density






Define ‘pressure with examples






Relate pressure with force and area






Investigate effects related to pressure (e.g. water pressure increasing with depth, a balloon expanding when inflated etc.)






Differentiate between mass and weight






Examine the effect of force in the presence of air pressure






Make a hydraulic elevator (STEAM)

Build a two stage rocket (STEAM)





* Relate the utilization of pulleys and gears in daily life.

Advanced


Demonstrate magnets have two poles (opposite attract and like poles repel)


Relate properties of permanent magnets (i.e., two opposite poles, attraction/repulsion, and strength of the magnetic force varies with distance) to uses in everyday life (e.g., a directional compass).




Construct a magnetic compass (STEM/STEAM)

Recognize that electric current has a magnetic field around it using a magnetic compass.




Compare different types of magnets (permanent, temporary and electromagnets)

Construct an electromagnet and identify the factors that affect the strength of an electromagnet




Describe how to magnetize a magnetic material




Describe briefly the working principles of electromagnetic devices such as speaker, doorbell









Recognize that there is a space around a magnet where effect of magnetic force can be observed





Draw magnetic field of a bar magnet using iron filings





Recognize earths magnetic field which attracts a freely-pivoted magnet to line up with it





Recognize that a freely-moving magnet comes to rest pointing in a north-south direction





Describe the properties that are unique to electromagnets (i.e., the strength varies with current, number of coils, and type of metal in the core; the magnetic attraction can be turned on and off; and the poles can switch)

Advance























Domain: Earth Science



Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7

Grade 8

Earth and its Resources

Earths Weather and Climate

Earth in the Solar system

Structure of the Earth

Soil

Space and Satellites

Solar system

Investigating Space

Astronomy

Benchmark X:

By grade V, students will be expected to:

  • Describe the structure of the Earth and recognize that Earths surface is made up of land, water and is surrounded by air.

  • Identify the Earths resources that we use in our everyday life and how to conserve them.

  • Describes the composition and characteristics of soil types, providing examples of their uses


Explore the use of Natural Resources and how they are useful in our daily lives.





Recognize that earths surface is made up of land and water and is surrounded by a layer of air called the atmosphere which is a mixture of different gases (nitrogen, carbon dioxide and oxygen etc.).

Describe the structure of the Earth (i.e., crust, mantle, and core) and the physical characteristics of these distinct parts.




Recognize that water in rivers and streams flows from mountains to oceans or lakes and Describe the sources of water on Earth.





Recognize that some remains (fossils) of animals and plants that lived on Earth a long time ago are found in rocks, soil and under the sea.





Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable resources.

Advanced





Investigate the impact of human activities on Earths natural resources.





Suggest ways to conserve natural resources. (Practice 3Rs)






Describe common features of volcanoes and know they are found at breaks in the Earth's crust.





Understand that the Earth's crust moves and when parts move suddenly this is called an earthquake.




Understand the difference between weather and climate.





Relate that weather (i.e., daily variations in temperature, humidity, precipitation in the form of rain or snow, clouds, and wind) changes with changing geographical location.

Advanced





Recognize that average temperature and precipitation can change seasons and location.





Apply knowledge of changes of state of water to common weather events (e.g. cloud formation, dew formation, the evaporation of puddles, snow, and rain) and understand the Water Cycle.





Understand temperature as the degree of hotness or coldness of an object or place.





Use various instruments (room thermometers, anemometer, clinical thermometer etc.) and measure and record temperature using different scales.







Define climate change and describe how it affects the world.





Suggest some ways to reverse climate change in your country.






Identify similarities and differences among the different types of soil and classify them based on their clay, sand and organic content.





Investigate the composition and characteristics of different soils.





Comprehend that soil composition can change, which can support, or hinder, plant growth.





Identify various causes of soil pollution.





Identify professions related to Earth Science i.e. paleontologists, seismologists, geologists.




Benchmark XI:

By the end of grade V, students will be expected to:

  • Demonstrate the understanding of movement of earth, sun, moon, solar system and its relationship.

  • Demonstrate how the relationship of the Earth, moon and sun causes eclipses and moon phases.

  • Explore and investigate the importance of space exploration and the uses of various satellites.

  • Describes how the Earth spins around its axis in 24 hours resulting in day and night.

Benchmark XI:

By the end of grade VIII, students will be expected to:

  • Describe the physical features of celestial bodies.

  • Explain how gravity is the force that keeps objects in the solar system in regular and predictable motion and describe the resulting phenomena.

  • Explain the big bang theory of the origin of the universe.

  • Describe the formation of black hole in the life of a star

  • Recognize space exploration as an active area of scientific and technological research and development.

Describe and demonstrate the Solar System with the sun at the center and the planets revolving around the sun

Define the term ‘space and emphasize the need to explore it


Recognize that the force of gravity keeps planets and moons in their orbits.






Describe the Big Bang theory and explain how the universe began.



Differentiate between the characteristics of different planets



Understand that planetary systems can contain stars, planets, asteroids and comets.


Describe the characteristics of asteroids, meteorites and comets.


Explore and understand the terms star, galaxy, Milky Way and the black holes


Identify the sun as a source of heat and light for the Solar System









Compare the types of galaxies.





Explain the birth and death of our sun.





Evaluate the evidence that support scientific theories of the origin of the universe





Relate the life of a star with the formation of black hole, neutron star. Pulsar white dwarf, red giant





Show how information is collected from space by using telescopes (e.g. Hubble space telescope) and space probes (e.g., Galileo).





Recognize that tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon



Define the term ‘satellite and describe its importance.




Recognize that the earth has a moon that revolves around it, and from earth the moon looks different at different times of the month (Phases of the moon)

Describe the natural satellites of the planets of the solar system.

Describe the uses of various satellites in space i.e. geostationary, weather, communication and Global Positioning System (GPS)



Investigate and describe how day and night are related to Earths daily rotation about its axis, and provide evidence of this rotation from the changing appearance of shadows during the day.



Describe the effects of the Earths annual revolution around the Sun, given the tilt of its axis (e.g., different seasons, different constellations visible at different times of the year).


Illustrate and explain how solar and lunar eclipses occur






Define artificial satellites and explain their importance in exploring the Earth and space.

Investigate how artificial satellites have improved our knowledge about space and are used for space research




Recognize the role of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and Explore the contribution of SUPARCO in space exploration.







Describe how seasons in Earths Northern and Southern hemispheres are related to Earths annual movement around the Sun.




Differentiate between planets and dwarf planets.




Describe the uses of various satellites in space i.e. geostationary, weather, communication and Global Positioning System (GPS).





Predict and comprehend how astronauts explore space, how do astronauts survive and research in space.






Inquire into the sighting of Halley's Comet; describe what they would feel if they saw it.





Recognize the structure of the sun.

Advanced




Recognize the key milestones in space technology.



Describe advancements in space technology and Analyze the benefits generated by the technology of space exploration.


Identify professions related to the Earth Science i.e. Astronauts, Physicists, Space Scientists etc.