Welcome to the Single National Curriculum (SNC) Feedback Portal.

Here you will find a DRAFT version of updates to the curriculum for ECCE to Grade 12. Please give your feedback on all material shared.

After feedback is incorporated, SNC for Grades 6-8 will be notified for implementation in the Academic Year starting in 2022. First round of feedback for these grades is due on December 20, 2021.

An updated curriculum for ECCE to Grade 5 and for Grades 9-12 will be notified later, for implementation in the Academic Year starting 2023.



English Language - Progression Grid

Grades 9 - 12

Grade 9

Grade 10

Grade 11

Grade 12

Domain: Oral Communication Skills

Standard #1: Students will be able to develop and practise listening attitudes and behaviours to listen to, comprehend, and respond to a variety of speech types. They will use appropriate social, creative, and academic conventions of spoken discourse for effective oral communication with individuals and in groups, in both formal and informal settings for various purposes and real-world applications.

Benchmark I:

Examine the content of listening texts by identifying main ideas and information, asking questions for clarity of content, and analysing what is understood through paraphrasing and summarising skills.

Benchmark I:

Examine the content of listening texts by identifying main ideas and information, asking questions for clarity of content, analysing what is understood through paraphrasing and summarising exercises, and interpreting the deeper meanings of texts through recounting, synthesising, comparing and contrasting more than one text.

Listen to and comprehend different types of texts (fiction/non-fiction/stories/poems) or information presented orally and visually through other media:

  1. Ask and answer grade level questions about key details across comprehension levels (factual, inferential and evaluative) orally.

  2. Determine/Identify and retell key ideas or details from the text orally.

  3. Interpret the text and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.

  4. Analyse the main ideas and supporting details and explain how they clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.

  5. Show comprehension by summarising, analysing, and evaluating facts and ideas.

Listen to and comprehend different types of texts (fiction/non-fiction/stories/poems) or information presented orally and visually through other media:

  1. Ask and answer grade level questions about key details across comprehension levels (factual, inferential and evaluative) orally.

  2. Determine/Identify and retell key ideas or details from the text orally.

  3. Interpret the text and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.

  4. Analyse the main ideas and supporting details and explain how they clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.

  5. Show comprehension by summarising, analysing, and evaluating facts and ideas.

Listen to and comprehend different types of texts (fiction/non-fiction/stories/poems) or information presented orally and visually through other media:

  1. Ask and answer grade level questions about key details across comprehension levels (factual, inferential and evaluative) orally.

  2. Determine/Identify and retell key ideas or details from the text orally.

  3. Interpret the text and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.

  4. Analyse the main ideas and supporting details and explain how they clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.

  5. Show comprehension by summarising, analysing, and evaluating facts and ideas.

  6. Show further comprehension by recounting, comparing and contrasting elements from familiar texts and other sources.

Listen to and comprehend different types of texts (fiction/non-fiction/stories/poems) or information presented orally and visually through other media:

  1. Ask and answer grade level questions about key details across comprehension levels (factual, inferential and evaluative) orally.

  2. Determine/Identify and retell key ideas or details from the text orally.

  3. Interpret the text and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.

  4. Analyse the main ideas and supporting details and explain how they clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.

  5. Show comprehension by summarising, analysing, and evaluating facts and ideas.

  6. Show further comprehension by recounting, comparing and contrasting elements from familiar texts and other sources.

Listen to and comprehend different types of texts (fiction/non-fiction/stories/poems) or information presented orally and visually through other media by:

  1. Paraphrasing portions of a text orally.

  2. Paraphrasing and summarize the text orally.

  3. Critically distinguishing fact from opinion.


Listen to and comprehend different types of texts (fiction/non-fiction/stories/poems) or information presented orally and visually through other media:

  1. Recounting important features of a text.

  2. Comparing and contrasting features from more than one text to gain clarity and further analysis.

Listen to and comprehend different types of texts (fiction/non-fiction/stories/poems) or information presented orally and visually through other media by:

  1. Recounting important features of a text.

  2. Comparing and contrasting features from more than one text to gain clarity and further analysis.

  3. Critically distinguishing fact from opinion.


Listen to and comprehend different types of texts (fiction/non-fiction/stories/poems) or information presented orally and visually through other media by:

  1. Gathering, evaluating, and selecting facts and ideas.

  2. Synthesising the information highlighted in various texts.

Listen to and comprehend different types of texts (fiction/non-fiction/stories/poems) or information presented orally and visually through other media by:

  1. Gathering, evaluating, and selecting facts and ideas.

  2. Synthesising the information highlighted in various texts.

  3. Critically distinguishing fact from opinion.


Listen to and comprehend different types of texts (fiction/non-fiction/stories/poems) or information presented orally and visually through other media by:

  1. Developing likes, dislikes.

  2. Expressing personal opinion about what is read.

Listen to and comprehend different types of texts (fiction/non-fiction/stories/poems) or information presented orally and visually through other media by:

  1. Developing likes, dislikes.

  2. Expressing personal opinion about what is read.

  3. Critically distinguishing fact from opinion.

  4. Judging and commenting on the credibility of the speaker source of information.

Benchmark II:

Actively participate in discussions by sharing ideas and information; and interpreting ideas and information shared for their deliverance, coherence, and validity.

Benchmark II:

Actively participate in discussions by sharing ideas and information that is supplemented with supporting detail and relevant evidence; and interpreting ideas and information shared for their deliverance, coherence, and validity, providing counter arguments and constructive criticism wherever necessary.

Interpret and critique a speakers intent/purpose (e.g., to instruct, to inform, to persuade).

Interpret and critique a speakers intent/purpose (e.g., to instruct, to inform, to persuade).

Interpret and critique a speakers intent/purpose (e.g., to instruct, to inform, to persuade).

Interpret and critique a speakers intent/purpose (e.g., to instruct, to inform, to persuade).

Evaluate a speakers argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims from alternate or opposing claims, and creating an oragnised understanding of relationship between claims.

Evaluate a speakers argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims from counterclaims and the reasoning and evidence present for both.


Evaluate a speakers argument and specific claims, pointing out the strengths and limitations for them in a manner that accommodates the audiences knowledge and concerns.

Evaluate a speakers argument and specific claims and maintaining a formal style and objective tone while creating cohesion and providing a concluding statement that follows and supports the argument.

Evaluate a speaker's delivery (pace, volume tone, stress, mood/emotion) from the text and body language.

Evaluate a speaker's delivery (pace, volume tone, stress, mood/emotion) from the text and body language.


Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

Present arguments, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with valid reasoning, and well-chosen details.


Use knowledge of language and its conventions to: choose and use language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.


Use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

Present arguments, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with valid reasoning, and modify a statement made by a peer by exhibiting appropriate conventions of interruption.


Use knowledge of language and its conventions to: choose and use language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.


Use effective speaking style as well as apt body language, dress and posture.

Present arguments, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with sound valid reasoning, and consistent and logical organization of ideas.


Use knowledge of language and its conventions to: choose and use language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.


Use learned oral functions to clarify, rephrase, explain, expand and restate information and ideas.

Present arguments, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with sound valid reasoning, and consistent and logical organization of ideas.


Use knowledge of language and its conventions to: choose and use language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.


Use learned oral functions to clarify, rephrase, explain, expand and restate information and ideas.

Benchmark III:

Adopt etiquettes of speaking for a variety of intents and purposes in both formal and informal settings by paying close attention to tone, register, posture, dress code, word choice and expression, and correct mannerisms for providing feedback, and review.

Benchmark III:

Adopt etiquettes of speaking for a variety of intents and purposes in both formal and informal settings by paying close attention to tone, register, posture, dress code, word choice and expression, and correct mannerisms for providing feedback, review and incorporating editions in own speech.

Speak clearly and fluently using the appropriate voice qualities: pace, volume, tone, stress, and enunciation.

Use sentences for different communicative purpose; giving reasons to express satisfaction/dissatisfaction, approval/disapproval, modify a statement made by a peer.

Speak clearly and fluently using the appropriate voice qualities: pace, volume, tone, stress, and enunciation.

Use sentences for different communicative purpose; giving reasons for more sensitive expression of personal needs, feelings, emotions and ideas.

Speak clearly and fluently using the appropriate voice qualities: pace, volume, tone, stress, and enunciation.

Use sentences for different communicative purpose; giving reasons for analysis, inference, and organisation of material in regards with the purpose and audience.

Speak clearly and fluently using the appropriate voice qualities: pace, volume, tone, stress, and enunciation.

Use sentences to prove learned communicative abilities for various reasons and purposes, incorporating more creative presentational styles, such as taking up a ‘voice or presenting a dramatic monologue.


Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate, facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes.

Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate, facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes.

Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate, facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate, facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

Engage effectively in collaborative discussions (one- on-one, in groups, and teacher led), and debates and include strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express and share information/ideas.


  1. Exhibit appropriate etiquettes of interacting with peers and review progress towards specific goals and deadlines, and revise roles as needed.

Engage in conventions of one-on-one interactions and group discussions, debates, and presentations both in speech and while using visual materials to best represent facts, ideas and points of view for different purposes and audiences.


  1. Exhibit appropriate etiquettes of interacting with peers and suitable tone to review progress towards specific goals and deadlines, and revise roles as needed.

Engage, discuss with, and respond to different audiences as a means to communicate information, opinion and meaning through discussions, debates, presentations, and interviews while observing a range of spoken and visual material.


  1. Evaluate to comment orally on results, the progression of roles defined and punctuality of peers against a pre-developed student/teacher criterion.

Engage with real world applications of spoken standards in English Language to express appropriate interaction with audiences using a selection of audio-visual aids and command over social and cultural norms.


  1. Evaluate to summarize the main points of roles carried out for the benefit of the whole group using clear spoken language and modify ones opinions with reasons.

Engage effectively in collaborative discussions (one- on-one, in groups, and teacher led), and debates and include strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express and share information/ideas.


  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to and paraphrasing the evidence on the topic, text or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.


  1. Pose questions that highlight differences in perspectives and respond to others questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.


  1. Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.

Engage in conventions of one-on-one interactions and group discussions, debates, and presentations both in speech and while using visual materials to best represent facts, ideas and points of view for different purposes and audiences.


  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to, paraphrasing, and summarising the evidence on the topic, text or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.


  1. Pose questions that highlight differences in perspective and respond to others questions with synthesis of relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.


  1. Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through comparing, contrasting, and recounting.

Engage, discuss with, and respond to different audiences as a means to communicate information, opinion and meaning through discussions, debates, presentations, and interviews while observing a range of spoken and visual material.


  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to, paraphrasing, and summarising the evidence on the topic, text or issue to provide analysis on the ideas under discussion.


  1. Pose questions that take into account numerous perspectives and respond to others questions sensitively through negotiation and reaching consensus.


  1. Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through inquiring, suggesting, and persuading.

Engage with real world applications of spoken standards in English Language to express appropriate interaction with audiences using a selection of audio-visual aids and command over social and cultural norms.


  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to, paraphrasing, and summarising the evidence on the topic, text or issue to provide analysis and resolution on the ideas under discussion.


  1. Compile the questions posed and appropriate responses in written form.


  1. Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through assessing and relating probability concerning particular goals.

Students will be able to:

  • Ask and respond to questions of personal interest and general everyday aspects,

  • Express needs and requirements by giving reasons.

  • Express dissatisfaction, disapproval, and disagreement politely.

  • Agree/disagree partially

  • Ask, restate and simplify directions and instructions.

  • Support and modify one's opinion with reasons.

  • Modify a statement made by a peer.

  • Acknowledge others' contributions.

  • Identify a problem and propose a solution.


Students will be able to:

  • Ask and respond to questions of personal interest and general everyday aspects,

  • Express needs and requirements by giving reasons.

  • Express dissatisfaction, disapproval, and disagreement politely.

  • Agree/disagree partially

  • Ask, restate and simplify directions and instructions.

  • Support and modify one's opinion with reasons.

  • Modify a statement made by a peer.

  • Acknowledge others' contributions.

  • Identify a problem and propose a solution.

Students will be able to:

  • Ask and respond to questions of personal interest and general everyday aspects,

  • Express needs and requirements by giving reasons.

  • Express dissatisfaction, disapproval, and disagreement politely.

  • Agree/disagree partially

  • Ask, restate and simplify directions and instructions.

  • Support and modify one's opinion with reasons.

  • Modify a statement made by a peer.

  • Acknowledge others' contributions.

  • Identify a problem and propose a solution.

  • Use polite forms to negotiation and reach consensus.

Students will be able to:

  • Ask and respond to questions of personal interest and general everyday aspects,

  • Express needs and requirements by giving reasons.

  • Express dissatisfaction, disapproval, and disagreement politely.

  • Agree/disagree partially

  • Ask, restate and simplify directions and instructions.

  • Support and modify one's opinion with reasons.

  • Modify a statement made by a peer.

  • Acknowledge others' contributions.

  • Identify a problem and propose a solution.

  • Use polite forms to negotiation and reach consensus.

Students will be able to:

  • Ask questions for information

  • Ask about and express opinion, emotions


Students will be able to:

  • Ask questions for information

  • Ask about and express opinion, emotions


Students will be able to:

  • Ask questions for information

  • Ask about and express opinion, emotions


Students will be able to:

  • Ask questions for information

  • Ask about and express opinion, emotions


Analyse and discuss the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.

Analyse and discuss the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study using various types of learned phrases to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.

Analyse and discuss the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study using various types of learned phrases to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.


Further analyse and discuss the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, orally) and present how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study using parallel structure in speech.

Analyse and discuss the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study using various types of learned phrases to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.


Further analyse and discuss the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, orally) and present how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study:

  1. Using parallel structure in speech, accurately general academic, and

  2. Domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level.

Reading and Critical Thinking

Standard #1: Use knowledge, skills, and strategies related to word identification, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension to construct meaning from informational and literary texts, while maintaining a positive disposition towards reading.

Phonics and Word Recognition

Benchmark I: Decode unfamiliar multisyllabic words and read aloud a wide range of unfamiliar texts with fluency, expression and understanding.

Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to accurately read unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to accurately read unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to accurately read unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to accurately read unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Fluency

Read aloud with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension:

  1. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.

  2. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

  4. Recognise and use all forms of punctuation (e.g., ellipses, dashes) to aid comprehension.

Read aloud with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension:

  1. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.

  2. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

  4. Recognise and use all forms of punctuation (e.g., ellipses, dashes) to aid comprehension.

Read aloud with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension:

  1. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.

  2. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

  4. Recognise and use all forms of punctuation (e.g., ellipses, dashes) to aid comprehension.

Read aloud with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension:

  1. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.

  2. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

  4. Recognise and use all forms of punctuation (e.g., ellipses, dashes) to aid comprehension.

Standard #2: Appreciate, comprehend, analyse, and critique fiction and non-fiction literary texts (prose as in novels and short stories, poetry as in poems and song lyrics, plays, screenplays, academic and personal essays, and biography types) and informational texts (that employ expository, persuasive, procedural, and functional styles of writing). And use a variety of reading strategies appropriate to the reading purpose and type of text.

Reading Strategies

Benchmark II:

Interact with texts read in an academic setting as well as for pleasure by predicting the progression of events in a text, developing understanding through varying context clues, asking questions while reading a text for clarity, and analysing organizational patterns for ideas and information to gauge meaning of texts at a deeper level.

Benchmark II:

Interact with texts read in an academic setting as well as for pleasure by predicting the progression of events in a text, developing understanding through varying context clues, asking questions while reading a text for clarity, analysing organizational patterns for ideas and information to gauge meaning of texts at a deeper level, summarising, paraphrasing, and commenting on what is read with personal opinion.

Preview the conclusions of articles and reports, and citations of interest.


Make predictions or
ask questions based on the literary genre, author, type of
publication, and/or prior
knowledge of the topic or
reading context.

Preview the conclusions of articles and reports, and citations of interest.


Make predictions or
ask questions based on the literary genre, author, type of
publication, and/or prior
knowledge of the topic or
reading context.

Preview the conclusions of articles and reports, and citations of interest.


Make predictions or
ask questions based on the literary genre, author, type of
publication, and/or prior
knowledge of the topic or
reading context.

Preview the conclusions of articles and reports, and citations of interest.


Make predictions or
ask questions based on the literary genre, author, type of
publication, and/or prior
knowledge of the topic or
reading context.

Ask and answer higher-order questions to guide/assess reading (e.g., Why is the author saying this
right now? Why did the author
choose this word? How is this
different from what I read
somewhere else?).

Take notes while
reading (e.g., respond in the
margins, outline) to support
comprehension and thinking.

Ask and answer higher-order questions to guide/assess reading (e.g., Why is the author saying this
right now? Why did the author
choose this word? How is this
different from what I read
somewhere else?).

Take notes while
reading (e.g., respond in the
margins, outline) to support
comprehension and thinking.

Ask and answer higher-order questions to guide/assess reading (e.g., Why is the author saying this
right now? Why did the author
choose this word? How is this
different from what I read
somewhere else?).

Take notes while
reading (e.g., respond in the
margins, outline) to support
comprehension and thinking.

Ask and answer higher-order questions to guide/assess reading (e.g., Why is the author saying this
right now? Why did the author
choose this word? How is this
different from what I read
somewhere else?).

Take notes while
reading (e.g., respond in the
margins, outline) to support
comprehension and thinking.

Facilitate reading and understanding through contextual clues, e.g.:

  • Topic sentences

  • Knowledge of vocabulary

  • Cohesive devices

  • Typographical and visual features

  • Text features


Make predictions based on, e.g.,

  • Contextual clues (e.g., headings, key words)

  • Patterns and relationship of ideas (e.g., cause-effect, points of view)

Skim for the gist/main idea of the text.

Scan for details.

Sequence more complex details (in chronological or spatial order).

Distinguish cause from effect, fact from opinion (e.g., by noting outcomes, personal comments)

Categorise and classify given details.

Compare and contrast ideas.

Analyse organisational patterns in a text:

  • List/sequence of ideas/events

  • Comparison-contrast

  • Cause-effect

  • Problem-solution

  • Reasons/assumptions-conclusion

Make inferences to draw conclusions from, e.g.,

  • Contextual information

  • Writers viewpoints

  • Implied information

Identify different points of view (e.g., first person, third person).

Interpret and integrate information from a variety of sources (e.g., table of contents, footnotes, glossary).

Ask a variety of questions at different levels (e.g., inferential, analytical questions) about the texts read or viewed.

Formulate questions to guide research.

Gather information independently from a range of print and non-print sources (e.g., using search engines, keywords, databases).


Select and evaluate relevant information from various sources for defined information needs.

Paraphrase information or ideas (using own words or synonyms/antonyms)

Summarise ideas (from one/multiple paragraphs or an extract).

Identify the purpose and audience of texts read or viewed.

Identify and analyse techniques (e.g., music/ sound, image/visual effects) used in written and visual texts to achieve a variety of purposes.

Establish criteria for responding to written and visual texts

Synthesise information using a variety of organisational patterns (e.g., comparison-contrast, problem-solution).

Facilitate reading, understanding, and analysis through contextual clues, e.g.:

  • Topic sentences

  • Knowledge of vocabulary

  • Cohesive devices

  • Typographical and visual features

  • Text features


Make predictions based on, e.g.,

  • Contextual clues (e.g., headings, key words)

  • Patterns and relationship of ideas (e.g., cause-effect, points of view)

Skim for the gist/main idea of the text.

Scan for details.

Sequence more complex details (in chronological or spatial order).

Distinguish cause from effect, fact from opinion (e.g., by noting outcomes, personal comments)

Categorise and classify given details.

Compare and contrast ideas.

Analyse organisational patterns in a text:

  • List/sequence of ideas/events

  • Comparison-contrast

  • Cause-effect

  • Problem-solution

  • Reasons/assumptions-conclusion

Make inferences to draw conclusions from, e.g.,

  • Contextual information

  • Writers viewpoints

  • Implied information

Identify different points of view (e.g., first person, third person).

Interpret and integrate information from a variety of sources (e.g., table of contents, preface, footnotes, glossary).

Ask a variety of questions at different levels (e.g., analytical, evaluative questions) about the texts read or viewed.

Formulate questions to guide research.

Gather information independently from a range of print and non-print sources (e.g., using search engines, keywords, databases).


Select and evaluate relevant information from various sources for defined information needs.

Paraphrase information or ideas (using own words or synonyms/antonyms).

Summarise ideas (from one/multiple paragraphs or an extract).

Identify the purpose and audience of texts read or viewed

Identify and analyse techniques (e.g., music/ sound, image/visual effects) used in written and visual texts to achieve a variety of purposes.

Establish criteria for responding to written and visual texts

Synthesise information using a variety of organisational patterns (e.g., comparison-contrast, problem-solution) and make generalisations at a critical level.

Facilitate reading, understanding, and evaluation through contextual clues, e.g.:

  • Topic sentences

  • Knowledge of vocabulary

  • Cohesive devices

  • Typographical and visual features

  • Text features


Make predictions based on, e.g.,

  • Contextual clues (e.g., headings, key words)

  • Patterns and relationship of ideas (e.g., cause-effect, points of view)

Skim for the gist/main idea of the text.

Scan for details.

Sequence more complex details (in chronological or spatial order).

Distinguish cause from effect, fact from opinion (e.g., by noting outcomes, personal comments)

Categorise and classify given details.

Compare and contrast ideas.

Analyse organisational patterns in a text:

  • List/sequence of ideas/events

  • Comparison-contrast

  • Cause-effect

  • Problem-solution

  • Reasons/assumptions-conclusion

Make inferences to draw conclusions from, e.g.,

  • Contextual information

  • Writers viewpoints

  • Implied information

Identify different points of view (e.g., first person, third person).

Interpret and integrate information from a variety of sources (e.g., table of contents, preface, footnotes, appendix, glossary).

Ask a variety of questions at different levels (e.g., evaluative, reflective questions) about the texts read or viewed.

Formulate questions to guide research.

Gather information independently from a range of print and non-print sources (e.g., using search engines, keywords, databases).


Select and evaluate relevant information from various sources for defined information needs.

Paraphrase information or ideas (using own words or synonyms/antonyms).

Summarise ideas (from one/multiple paragraphs or an extract).

Identify the purpose and audience of texts read or viewed

Identify and analyse techniques (e.g., music/ sound, image/visual effects) used in written and visual texts to achieve a variety of purposes.

Establish criteria for responding to written and visual texts

Synthesise information using a variety of organisational patterns (e.g., comparison-contrast, problem-solution) and make generalisations at a critical level.

Facilitate reading, understanding, and criticism through contextual clues, e.g.:

  • Topic sentences

  • Knowledge of vocabulary

  • Cohesive devices

  • Typographical and visual features

  • Text features


Make predictions based on, e.g.,

  • Contextual clues (e.g., headings, key words)

  • Patterns and relationship of ideas (e.g., cause-effect, points of view)

Skim for the gist/main idea of the text.

Scan for details.

Sequence more complex details (in chronological or spatial order).

Distinguish cause from effect, fact from opinion (e.g., by noting outcomes, personal comments)

Categorise and classify given details.

Compare and contrast ideas.

Analyse organisational patterns in a text:

  • List/sequence of ideas/events

  • Comparison-contrast

  • Cause-effect

  • Problem-solution

  • Reasons/assumptions-conclusion

Make inferences to draw conclusions from, e.g.,

  • Contextual information

  • Writers viewpoints

  • Implied information

Identify different points of view (e.g., first person, third person).

Interpret and integrate information from a variety of sources (e.g., table of contents, foreword, preface, footnotes, appendix, glossary).

Ask a variety of questions learned previously at different levels (e.g., clarifying, open-ended, analytical, reflective questions) about the texts read or viewed.

Formulate questions to guide research.

Gather information independently from a range of print and non-print sources (e.g., using search engines, keywords, databases).


Select and evaluate relevant information from various sources for defined information needs.

Paraphrase information or ideas (using own words or synonyms/antonyms).

Summarise ideas (from one/multiple paragraphs or an extract).

Identify the purpose and audience of texts read or viewed

Identify and analyse techniques (e.g., music/ sound, image/visual effects) used in written and visual texts to achieve a variety of purposes.

Establish criteria for responding to written and visual texts

Synthesise information using a variety of organisational patterns (e.g., comparison-contrast, problem-solution) and make generalisations at a critical level.

Reading Literary Texts

Benchmark III:

Read from a vast selection of print and non-print texts from various genres that include but are not limited to – poetry, prose (fiction and non-fiction), and drama, and anlyse what is read for its elements of a story (e.g. plot, climax, conflict), the language used (e.g. literal and figurative), tools and techniques (e.g. diction, structure), and the medium of communication (e.g. auditory, visual).

Benchmark III:

Read from a vast selection of print and non-print texts from various genres that include but are not limited to – poetry, prose (fiction and non-fiction), and drama, anlyse what is read for its elements of a story (e.g. plot, climax, conflict), the language used (e.g. literal and figurative), tools and techniques (e.g. diction, structure), and the medium of communication (e.g. auditory, visual), and compare specific features across texts.

Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.


Identify similar themes across texts and apply this knowledge to interpret what is read: comparing the themes and developing further understanding through contrast.

Analyse how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot). 


For prose texts, recognise the interaction between plot structures (i.e., initiating events, complications, climax, resolution) where applicable.


Identify the common conventions in drama (e.g., soliloquy, aside, dramatic irony).


Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; Analyse the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration, consonance, assonance) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama. 


Show awareness of how the writers use of language (e.g., simile, metaphor, personification, irony) varies according to the purpose and audience for the writing to achieve impact.


Analyse and evaluate how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text. 


Identify the setting (e.g., place, time), mood and tone of the text through use of language and figurative devices.





Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version.


Identify and compare specific characteristics among different genres of literature (e.g., poetry, prose, and drama).

Identify the speaker of the poem/story.


Identify and compare specific characteristics among different genres of literature and link them to their purposes.

Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.


Identify similar themes across texts and apply this knowledge to interpret what is read: comparing the themes and developing further understanding through contrast.

Analyse how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot). 


For prose texts, recognise the interaction between plot structures (i.e., initiating events, complications, climax, resolution) and character arcs where applicable.


Identify the common conventions in drama (e.g., soliloquy, aside, dramatic irony, stage directions).


Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; Analyse the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration, consonance, assonance) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama. 


Show awareness of how the writers use of language (e.g., simile, metaphor, personification, irony) varies according to the purpose and audience for the writing.


Analyse how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text. 


Relate the setting (e.g., place, time), mood and tone of the text through use of language, figurative devices, and punctuation.



Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version.


Identify and compare specific characteristics among different genres of literature (e.g., poetry, prose, and drama) and link them to their purposes.

Identify the speaker of the poem/story and their narrative voice.


Identify and compare specific characteristics among different genres of literature and link them to their purposes.

Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.


Identify similar themes across texts and apply this knowledge to interpret what is read: comparing the themes and developing further understanding through contrast.

Analyse how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot). 


For prose texts, recognise the interaction between plot structures (i.e., initiating events, complications, climax, resolution), character arcs, and dialogues where applicable.


Identify the common conventions in drama (e.g., soliloquy, aside, dramatic irony, comic relief, stage directions).


Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; Analyse the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration, consonance, cacophony, harmony) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama. 


Show awareness of how the writers use of language (e.g., simile, metaphor, personification, irony) varies according to the purpose and audience for the writing.


Analyse how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text. 


Relate the setting (e.g., place, time) to the meaning, mood and tone of the text.




Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia

Version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film).


Identify and compare specific characteristics among different genres of literature (e.g., poetry, prose, and drama) and link them to their purposes.


Analyse the effect the speaker of the poem/story has on the events of the text.


Identify and compare specific characteristics among different genres of literature and link them to their purposes.

Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.


Identify similar themes across texts and apply this knowledge to interpret what is read: comparing the themes and developing further understanding through contrast.

Analyse how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot). 


For prose texts, recognise the interaction between plot structures (i.e., initiating events, complications, climax, resolution), character arcs, dialogues, and thematic concerns where applicable.


Identify the common conventions in drama (e.g., soliloquy, aside, dramatic irony, comic relief, stage directions) and study their effect on the progression of events.


Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; Analyse the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration, cacophony, harmony) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama. 


Show awareness of how the writers use of language (e.g., simile, metaphor, personification, irony) varies according to the purpose and audience for the writing.


Analyse how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text. 


Identify the setting (e.g., place, time), mood and tone of the text through use of language.


Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia

Version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film), and forming an opinion regarding the findings.


Identify and compare specific characteristics among different genres of literature (e.g., poetry, prose, and drama) and link them to their purposes.


Form personal opinions, likes and dislikes on the speaker of the poem/story.


Identify and compare specific characteristics among different genres of literature and link them to their purposes.

Reading Information Texts

Consider the layout of texts to:

  • Identify typographical and visual features (e.g., captions, font types/ sizes, text layout, illustrations)

  • Identify text features (e.g., titles/ headlines, main and sub-headings, captions/labels for visuals)


Consider the layout of texts to:

  • Identify typographical and visual features (e.g., captions, font types/ sizes, text layout, illustrations)

  • Identify text features (e.g., titles/ headlines, main and sub-headings, captions/labels for visuals)


  • Identify typographical and visual features (e.g., captions, font types/ sizes, text layout, illustrations)

  • Identify text features (e.g., titles/ headlines, main and sub-headings, captions/labels for visuals)

  • Recognise the organisational patterns in a text


  • Identify typographical and visual features (e.g., captions, font types/ sizes, text layout, illustrations)

  • Identify text features (e.g., titles/ headlines, main and sub-headings, captions/labels for visuals)

  • Recognise the organisational patterns in a text

Formulate response on the text read by:

  • Making predictions about the content of a text using, e.g., prior knowledge, typographical and visual features, text features, organisational patterns and structure (e.g., in an exposition).


Formulate response on the text read by: 

  • Making predictions about the content of a text using, e.g., prior knowledge, typographical and visual features, text features, organisational patterns and structure (e.g., in an exposition). 


Formulate response on the text read by: 

  • Making predictions about the content of a text using, e.g., prior knowledge, typographical and visual features, text features, organisational patterns and structure (e.g., in an exposition, thesis statement, justification, restatement of thesis).


Formulate response on the text read by: 

  • Making predictions about the content of a text using, e.g., prior knowledge, typographical and visual features, text features, organisational patterns and structure (e.g., in an exposition, thesis statement, justification, restatement of thesis).


Explain whether predictions about the content of a text are acceptable or should be modified and why:

  • Restate and summarise the gist/main idea and key details.


Explain whether predictions about the content of a text are acceptable or should be modified and why:

  • Restate, sumamrise and paraphrase the gist/main idea and key details.


Explain whether predictions about the content of a text are acceptable or should be modified and why:

  • Restate, sumamrise and paraphrase the gist/main idea and key details.

  • Form personal opinions about the predictions about the content of a text.


Explain whether predictions about the content of a text are acceptable or should be modified and why:

  • Restate, sumamrise and paraphrase the gist/main idea and key details.

  • Form personal opinions about and critique of the predictions about the content of a text.


Identify and interpret the evidence in arguments, e.g., 

  • Facts

  • Reasons

  • Appeal to an authority

  • Opinion from experts


Use logic (e.g., to achieve unity and coherence in arguments).


Recognise how the writers use of persuasive language (e.g., choice of words to appeal to authority, rhetorical question) varies according to the purpose and audience for the writing to achieve impact.


Identify and interpret the evidence in arguments, e.g., 

  • Facts

  • Reasons

  • Appeal to an authority

  • Opinion from experts

  • Statistics


Use logic (e.g., to achieve unity and coherence in arguments).


Recognise how the writers use of persuasive language (e.g., choice of words to appeal to authority, rhetorical question) varies according to the purpose and audience for the writing to achieve impact.


Identify and interpret the evidence in arguments, e.g., 

  • Facts

  • Reasons

  • Appeal to an authority

  • Opinion from experts

  • Statistics

  • Historical precedent


Use logic (e.g., to achieve unity and coherence in arguments).


Recognise how the writers use of persuasive language (e.g., choice of words to appeal to authority, novelty or emotions, rhetorical question) varies according to the purpose and audience for the writing to achieve impact.


Identify and interpret the evidence in arguments, e.g., 

  • Facts

  • Reasons

  • Appeal to an authority

  • Opinion from experts

  • Statistics

  • Historical precedent


Use logic (e.g., to achieve unity and coherence in arguments).  


Recognise how the writers use of persuasive language (e.g., choice of words to appeal to authority, novelty or emotions, rhetorical question) varies according to the purpose and audience for the writing to achieve impact.


Types of Texts

Read and view, demonstrating the ability to discriminate among a variety of reading age-appropriate and more thought-provoking books and texts of different genres, from print and non-print sources, as an integral part of daily life, e.g.,

  • Poetry (e.g., narrative poems, epics, free verse, sonnets)

  • Personal recounts (e.g., diary entries, biographies, memoirs)

  • Narratives (e.g., science fiction, contemporary realistic fiction)

  • Procedures (e.g., directions, instructional materials, experiments)

  • Factual recounts (e.g., travelogues, news bulletins, notes of meeting)

  • Information reports (e.g., project reports, news reports)

  • Explanations (e.g., a phenomenon)

  • Expositions (e.g., proposals, arguments)

  • A mixture of reading types and forms (e.g., a personal recount in an exposition)*

Read and view, demonstrating the ability to discriminate among a variety of reading age-appropriate and more thought-provoking books and texts of different genres, from print and non-print sources, as an integral part of daily life, e.g.,

  • Poetry (e.g., narrative poems, epics, free verse, sonnets)

  • Personal recounts (e.g., diary entries, biographies, memoirs)

  • Narratives (e.g., science fiction, contemporary realistic fiction)

  • Procedures (e.g., directions, instructional materials, experiments)

  • Factual recounts (e.g., travelogues, news bulletins, notes of meeting)

  • Information reports (e.g., project reports, news reports)

  • Explanations (e.g., a phenomenon)

  • Expositions (e.g., proposals, arguments)

  • A mixture of reading types and forms (e.g., a personal recount in an exposition)*

Read and view, demonstrating the ability to discriminate among a variety of reading age-appropriate and more thought-provoking books and texts of different genres, from print and non-print sources, as an integral part of daily life, e.g.,

  • Poetry (e.g., narrative poems, epics, free verse, sonnets)

  • Personal recounts (e.g., diary entries, biographies, memoirs)

  • Narratives (e.g., science fiction, contemporary realistic fiction)

  • Procedures (e.g., directions, instructional materials, experiments)

  • Factual recounts (e.g., travelogues, news bulletins, notes of meeting)

  • Information reports (e.g., project reports, news reports)

  • Explanations (e.g., a phenomenon)

  • Expositions (e.g., proposals, arguments)

  • A mixture of reading types and forms (e.g., a personal recount in an exposition)*

Read and view, demonstrating the ability to discriminate among a variety of reading age-appropriate and more thought-provoking books and texts of different genres, from print and non-print sources, as an integral part of daily life, e.g.,

  • Poetry (e.g., narrative poems, epics, free verse, sonnets)

  • Personal recounts (e.g., diary entries, biographies, memoirs)

  • Narratives (e.g., science fiction, contemporary realistic fiction)

  • Procedures (e.g., directions, instructional materials, experiments)

  • Factual recounts (e.g., travelogues, news bulletins, notes of meeting)

  • Information reports (e.g., project reports, news reports)

  • Explanations (e.g., a phenomenon)

  • Expositions (e.g., proposals, arguments)

  • A mixture of reading types and forms (e.g., a personal recount in an exposition)*

Text Response


Benchmark IV:

Respond to a text by re-reading and reviewing parts of a text and presenting a critical understanding of the text based on its social context.

Re-read and review parts of a text/book.

Present a critical response, e.g., put together a portfolio of response notes and quote extracts which reflect the social context of the writing.


Present a critical commentary based on a set of criteria.

Re-read and review parts of a text/book.

Present a critical response, e.g., put together a portfolio of response notes and quote extracts which reflect the social context of the writing.


Present a critical commentary based on a set of criteria.

Re-read and review parts of a text/book.

Present a critical response, e.g., put together a portfolio of response notes and quote extracts which reflect the social context of the writing.


Present a critical commentary based on a set of criteria.

Re-read and review parts of a text/book.

Present a critical response, e.g., put together a portfolio of response notes and quote extracts which reflect the social context of the writing.


Present a critical commentary based on a set of criteria.

Domain: Vocabulary and Grammar

Standard #1: Use vocabulary accurately and appropriately as well as understand how speakers and writers alike put words together and use them alongside grammar to communicate meaning effectively and achieve impact.

Benchmark I:

Develop a wide scope for vocabulary suited to multiple intents and purposes and select with deliberation words in various combinations and structures to create the required meanings and nuances.

Benchmark I:

Develop a wide scope for vocabulary suited to multiple intents and purposes and select with deliberation words in various combinations and structures to create the required meanings and nuances keeping in mind the purpose, audience, and context.

Use words appropriate to type of texts (e.g., explanations: technical language, expositions: persuasive language), medium (spoken or written), and register (formal/ informal).


Use words that have been adapted from foreign languages (e.g., chandelier, pastry, mauve from French, and coffee, guitar, jar from Arabic)


Use words appropriate to type of texts (e.g., explanations: technical language, expositions: persuasive language), medium (spoken or written), register (formal/ informal), and context (e.g., euphemism).


Use words that have been adapted from foreign languages (e.g., chandelier, pastry, mauve from French, and coffee, guitar, jar from Arabic)


Use words appropriate to type of texts (e.g., explanations: technical language, expositions: persuasive language), medium (spoken or written), register (formal/ informal), context (e.g., euphemism), and culture (e.g., colloquial words).


Use words that have been adapted from foreign languages (e.g., chandelier, pastry, mauve from French, and coffee, guitar, jar from Arabic)

Use words appropriate to type of texts (e.g., explanations: technical language, expositions: persuasive language), medium (spoken or written), register (formal/ informal), context (e.g., euphemism), culture (e.g., colloquial words), and region (e.g., boot: British English, trunk: American English).


Use words that have been adapted from foreign languages (e.g., chandelier, pastry, mauve from French, and coffee, guitar, jar from Arabic)

Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., Analyse, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).

Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., Analyse, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).

Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).

Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).

Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning.

Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.

Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

Recognise and use antithetical pairs to emphasize a concept, idea, or conclusion.


Comprehend and use idioms, proverbs, and symbolism in speech and writing. 

Recognise and further use antithetical pairs to emphasize a concept, idea, or conclusion.


Comprehend and further use idioms, proverbs, and symbolism in speech and writing. 

Recognise and further use antithetical pairs to emphasize a concept, idea, or conclusion.


Comprehend and further use idioms, proverbs, and symbolism in speech and writing.

Recognise and further use antithetical pairs to emphasize a concept, idea, or conclusion.


Comprehend and further use idioms, proverbs, and symbolism in speech and writing.

Understand and utilize further types of figurative language (e.g., types of imagery such as visual and auditory; allegory, and allusion).

Understand and utilize further types of figurative language (e.g., contrast such as innocent/cynical, paradox such as “this is the beginning of the end”, juxtaposition such as themes of isolation and acceptance inferred against one another).

Understand and utilize further types of figurative language as well as poetic devices to understand poetry and prose alike. 

Understand, utilize, and appreciate further types of figurative language as well as poetic devices to understand poetry and prose alike. 

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.


Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a words position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.


Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a words position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for writing at the college and career readiness level.


Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a words position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for writing at the college and career readiness level and demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.


Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a words position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

Learn to check spelling accuracy independently by using print and/or non-print resources (e.g., dictionaries).


Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English spelling when writing.


Explore the use of synonyms with varying shades of meaning used for various purposes, e.g., propaganda, irony, parody and satire.

Learn to check spelling accuracy independently by using print and/or non-print resources (e.g., dictionaries).


Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English spelling when writing.


Explore the use of synonyms with varying shades of meaning used for various purposes, e.g., propaganda, irony, parody and satire.

Learn to check spelling accuracy independently by using print and/or non-print resources (e.g., dictionaries) and make relevant changes.


Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English spelling when writing.


Explore the use of synonyms with varying shades of meaning used for various purposes, e.g., propaganda, irony, parody and satire.

Learn to check spelling accuracy independently by using print and/or non-print resources (e.g., dictionaries) and make relevant changes.


Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English spelling when writing.


Explore the use of synonyms with varying shades of meaning used for various purposes, e.g., propaganda, irony, parody and satire.

Determine the meaning of various homographs and choose the correct one to relay proper meaning and context.

Determine the meaning of various homographs and choose the correct one to relay proper meaning and context.

Determine the meaning of various homographs and choose the correct one to relay proper meaning and context.

Determine the meaning of various homographs and choose the correct one to relay proper meaning and context.

Recognise in vocabularies that when one word is written in capital and the other in small, their meaning shifts and there is a big difference in content.

Recognise in vocabularies that when one word is written in capital and the other in small, their meaning shifts and there is a big difference in content.

Demonstrate the differences of capitonyms with homograph, capitalizing, and heteronym, and give an explanation of using capitonyms in writing.

Demonstrate the differences of capitonyms with homograph, capitalizing, and heteronym, and give an explanation of using capitonyms in writing.

Standard #2: Understand and use punctuation, syntax, grammatical functions, rules and further applications of grammatical concepts to develop accuracy and meaning in their written communication.

Nouns

Benchmark II:

Explore and practice suitable grammatical conventions that support the acquisition of language skills, especially in terms of improving listening, speaking, and reading skills, and writing skills that adhere to texts for creative, personal, academic and functional purposes.

Benchmark II:

Explore and practice suitable grammatical conventions that feature in texts of varying types, and shape meaning according to a particular purpose, audience, context and culture to lead to an improvement in receptive skills of listening, reading and viewing as learners recognise how meaning is made through the way words and structures are connected at the text level to achieve impact with increasing ease and inventiveness.

Demonstrate use of collective, countable and uncountable, material and abstract nouns.


Demonstrate use of collective, countable and uncountable, material and abstract nouns.


Demonstrate use of collective, countable and uncountable, material and abstract nouns.


Demonstrate use of collective, countable and uncountable, material and abstract nouns.


Apply rules of change of number of nouns.



Apply rules of change of number of nouns.



Use quantifiers: another, both, each, every, other, either, neither (e.g., Ahmed and Ali walked in. Both were early.)


Recognize and demonstrate use of words that have double plurals.

Use quantifiers: another, both, each, every, other, either, neither (e.g., Ahmed and Ali walked in. Both were early.)


Recognize and demonstrate use of words that have double plurals.

Demonstrate use of nouns, noun phrases and clauses in apposition.


Refer back to personal pronouns: to refer to someone already described (e.g., Mina was thrilled. She had won a prize.)

Demonstrate use of nouns, noun phrases and clauses in apposition.


Refer back to personal pronouns: to refer to someone already described (e.g., Mina was thrilled. She had won a prize.)

Use cohesive grammatical devices to create links across different clauses, sentences and

Paragraphs.

Use cohesive grammatical devices to create links across different clauses, sentences and

Paragraphs.

Pronouns

Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).


Recognise and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with
unclear or ambiguous antecedents).

Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).


Recognise and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with
unclear or ambiguous antecedents).

Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).


Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.


Recognise and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with
unclear or ambiguous antecedents).

Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).


Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.


Recognise and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with
unclear or ambiguous antecedents).

Articles

Apply rules of a, an, and the wherever applicable in speech and writing.

Apply rules of a, an, and the wherever applicable in speech and writing.

Apply rules of a, an, and the wherever applicable in speech and writing.

Apply rules of a, an, and the wherever applicable in speech and writing.

Doing Words (Verbs)

Illustrate the use of helping verbs in speech and writing.

Illustrate the use of helping verbs in speech and writing.

Illustrate the use of helping verbs in speech and writing.

Illustrate the use of helping verbs in speech and writing.

Demonstrate the proper use of types of verbs in speech and writing to facilitate coherence and fluency.

Demonstrate the proper use of types of verbs in speech and writing to facilitate coherence and fluency.

Use in writing verbs or verb phrases which refer back to an earlier part of the text (e.g., As has been discussed...).

Use in writing verbs or verb phrases which refer back to an earlier part of the text (e.g., As has been discussed...).

Employ in speech and writing further forms of verbs such as:

  • Imperative verb form: takes the same form as the bare infinitive (e.g., Stay there.)

  • Transitive verbs: take an object (e.g., She bought a pen.)

  • Intransitive verbs: take no object (e.g., The dog barked.)

  • Ditransitive verbs: take two objects (e.g., Mina cooked her father a bowl of porridge.)


Employ in speech and writing further forms of verbs such as:

  • Imperative verb form: takes the same form as the bare infinitive (e.g., Stay there.)

  • Transitive verbs: take an object (e.g., She bought a pen.)

  • Intransitive verbs: take no object (e.g., The dog barked.)

  • Ditransitive verbs: take two objects (e.g., Mina cooked her father a bowl of porridge.)


Employ in speech and writing further forms of verbs such as:

  • Imperative verb form: takes the same form as the bare infinitive (e.g., Stay there.)

  • Transitive verbs: take an object (e.g., She bought a pen.)

  • Intransitive verbs: take no object (e.g., The dog barked.)

  • Ditransitive verbs: take two objects (e.g., Mina cooked her father a bowl of porridge.)

  • Complex transitive verbs: take object and complement (e.g., Minas father considers her the best cook in the world.)

Employ in speech and writing further forms of verbs such as:

  • Imperative verb form: takes the same form as the bare infinitive (e.g., Stay there.)

  • Transitive verbs: take an object (e.g., She bought a pen.)

  • Intransitive verbs: take no object (e.g., The dog barked.)

  • Ditransitive verbs: take two objects (e.g., Mina cooked her father a bowl of porridge.)

  • Complex transitive verbs: take object and complement (e.g., Minas father considers her the best cook in the world.)

  • Verbs which allow a variety of sentence structures (e.g., Minas father wants some porridge. /Minas father wants her to cook some porridge.)


Distinguish verbs with different time/tense/aspect at an age and grade appropriate level:

  • Simple Past

  • Simple Present

  • Past Continuous

  • Present Perfect

  • Past Perfect

  • Present Perfect Continuous

Distinguish verbs with different time/tense/aspect at an age and grade appropriate level:

  • Simple Past

  • Simple Present

  • Past Continuous

  • Present Perfect

  • Past Perfect

  • Present Perfect Continuous

Distinguish between verbs with different time/tense/aspect at an age and grade appropriate level (e.g., by representing them on a timeline):

  • Simple Past

  • Simple Present

  • Past Continuous

  • Present Perfect

  • Past Perfect

  • Present Perfect Continuous

  • Future

  • Present Conditional

Distinguish between verbs with different time/tense/aspect at an age and grade appropriate level (e.g., by representing them on a timeline):

  • Simple Past

  • Simple Present

  • Past Continuous

  • Present Perfect

  • Past Perfect

  • Present Perfect Continuous

  • Future

  • Present Conditional

Recognize and demonstrate function and use of infinitives.

Recognize and demonstrate function and use of infinitives.

Recognize and demonstrate function and use of infinitives.

Recognize and demonstrate function and use of infinitives.

Apply regular and irregular verbs in speech and writing.

Apply regular and irregular verbs in speech and writing.

Apply regular and irregular verbs in speech and writing.

Apply regular and irregular verbs in speech and writing.

Tenses

Illustrate use of tenses learnt earlier at an age and grade appropriate level:

  • Simple Past

  • Simple Present

  • Past Continuous

  • Present Perfect

  • Past Perfect

  • Present Perfect Continuous

Illustrate use of tenses learnt earlier at an age and grade appropriate level:

  • Simple Past

  • Simple Present

  • Past Continuous

  • Present Perfect

  • Past Perfect

  • Present Perfect Continuous

Illustrate use of tenses learnt earlier at an age and grade appropriate level:

  • Simple Past

  • Simple Present

  • Past Continuous

  • Present Perfect

  • Past Perfect

  • Present Perfect Continuous

  • Future

  • Present Conditional

Illustrate use of tenses learnt earlier at an age and grade appropriate level:

  • Simple Past

  • Simple Present

  • Past Continuous

  • Present Perfect

  • Past Perfect

  • Present Perfect Continuous

  • Future

  • Present Conditional

  • Hypothetical Conditionals

Ensure understanding and demonstrate correct use of forms of perfect continuous tense:


Affirmative

Subject

to be

+ base + ing

She

is

talking.

Negative

Subject

to be + not

+ base + ing

She

is not (isn't)

talking

Interrogative

to be

+ subject

+ base + ing

Is

she

talking?



Ensure understanding and demonstrate correct use of forms of perfect continuous tense:


Affirmative

Subject

to be

+ base + ing

She

is

talking.

Negative

Subject

to be + not

+ base + ing

She

is not (isn't)

talking

Interrogative

to be

+ subject

+ base + ing

Is

she

talking?



Ensure understanding and demonstrate correct use of forms of perfect continuous tense:


Affirmative

Subject

to be

+ base + ing

She

is

talking.

Negative

Subject

to be + not

+ base + ing

She

is not (isn't)

talking

Interrogative

to be

+ subject

+ base + ing

Is

she

talking?



Ensure understanding and demonstrate correct use of forms of perfect continuous tense:


Affirmative

Subject

to be

+ base + ing

She

is

talking.

Negative

Subject

to be + not

+ base + ing

She

is not (isn't)

talking

Interrogative

to be

+ subject

+ base + ing

Is

she

talking?



Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.

Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.

Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense, and explain rule.

Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense, and explain rule.

Describing Words (Adjectives)

Classify adjectives into different types.


Change and use degrees of adjectives to:

  • Follow order of adjectives in sentences.

  • Form adjectives from nouns and verbs.

  • Use adjective phrases and clauses.


Classify adjectives into different types.


Change and use degrees of adjectives to:

  • Follow order of adjectives in sentences.

  • Form adjectives from nouns and verbs.

  • Use adjective phrases and clauses.


Classify adjectives into different types.


Change and use degrees of adjectives to:

  • Follow order of adjectives in sentences.

  • Form adjectives from nouns and verbs.

  • Use adjective phrases and clauses.


Classify adjectives into different types.


Change and use degrees of adjectives to:

  • Follow order of adjectives in sentences.

  • Form adjectives from nouns and verbs.

  • Use adjective phrases and clauses.






















Adverbs and Adverbials

Illustrate effective use of degrees adverbs.


Recognize varying positions of adverbs in sentences according to their kinds and importance.


Identify and use adverbial phrases and clauses.


Illustrate effective use of degrees adverbs.


Recognize varying positions of adverbs in sentences according to their kinds and importance.


Identify and use adverbial phrases and clauses.


Illustrate effective use of degrees adverbs.


Recognize varying positions of adverbs in sentences according to their kinds and importance.


Identify and use adverbial phrases and clauses.


Illustrate effective use of degrees adverbs.


Recognize varying positions of adverbs in sentences according to their kinds and importance.


Identify and use adverbial phrases and clauses.










Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases

Illustrate use of prepositions of position, time, movement and direction for varying purposes in:

  • Describing settings,

  • Place and purpose,

  • Setting and conditions,

  • People and movement.

Illustrate use of prepositions of position, time, movement and direction for varying purposes in:

  • Describing settings,

  • Place and purpose,

  • Setting and conditions,

  • People and movement.

Illustrate use of prepositions of position, time, movement and direction for varying purposes in:

  • Describing settings,

  • Place and purpose,

  • Setting and conditions,

  • People and movement.

Illustrate use of prepositions of position, time, movement and direction for varying purposes in:

  • Describing settings,

  • Place and purpose,

  • Setting and conditions,

  • People and movement.

Use prepositions and prepositional phrases for personal recounts and other purposes.

Use prepositions and prepositional phrases for personal recounts and other purposes.

Use prepositions and prepositional phrases for personal recounts and other purposes.

Use prepositions and prepositional phrases for personal recounts and other purposes.

Conjunctions

Use conjunctions in speech and writing:

  • Additive: again, also, as well, moreover, in addition, furthermore (e.g., I do not like soft drinks. Jamshed would prefer water as well.)

  • Contrastive: but, however, nonetheless, nevertheless, on the contrary (e.g., soft drinks taste good. However, water is better for you.)

  • Time: then, previously, later (e.g., We entered the hotel we had stayed at previously.)

  • Listing: first, then, next, finally (e.g., First, add the sugar to the butter. Then, break the egg.)

  • Resultative: since, consequently, therefore (e.g., It began to rain. Consequently, I could not go for the walk which I had been looking forward to.)

  • Concessive: nonetheless, anyhow, anyway, however (e.g., Mina likes soft drinks. However, she agrees that water is the healthier choice.)



Use conjunctions in speech and writing:

  • Additive: again, also, as well, moreover, in addition, furthermore (e.g., I do not like soft drinks. Jamshed would prefer water as well.)

  • Contrastive: but, however, nonetheless, nevertheless, on the contrary (e.g., soft drinks taste good. However, water is better for you.)

  • Time: then, previously, later (e.g., We entered the hotel we had stayed at previously.)

  • Listing: first, then, next, finally (e.g., First, add the sugar to the butter. Then, break the egg.)

  • Resultative: since, consequently, therefore (e.g., It began to rain. Consequently, I could not go for the walk which I had been looking forward to.)

  • Concessive: nonetheless, anyhow, anyway, however (e.g., Mina likes soft drinks. However, she agrees that water is the healthier choice.)



Use conjunctions in speech and writing:

  • Additive: again, also, as well, moreover, in addition, furthermore (e.g., I do not like soft drinks. Jamshed would prefer water as well.)

  • Contrastive: but, however, nonetheless, nevertheless, on the contrary (e.g., soft drinks taste good. However, water is better for you.)

  • Time: then, previously, later (e.g., We entered the hotel we had stayed at previously.)

  • Listing: first, then, next, finally (e.g., First, add the sugar to the butter. Then, break the egg.)

  • Resultative: since, consequently, therefore (e.g., It began to rain. Consequently, I could not go for the walk which I had been looking forward to.)

  • Concessive: nonetheless, anyhow, anyway, however (e.g., Mina likes soft drinks. However, she agrees that water is the healthier choice.)

  • Inference: otherwise, then, in that case (e.g., You do not want this bag? Can I take it, then?)

  • Summative: altogether, overall (e.g., It rained a lot but we had fun. Overall, it was a good holiday.)


Use conjunctions in speech and writing:

  • Additive: again, also, as well, moreover, in addition, furthermore (e.g., I do not like soft drinks. Jamshed would prefer water as well.)

  • Contrastive: but, however, nonetheless, nevertheless, on the contrary (e.g., soft drinks taste good. However, water is better for you.)

  • Time: then, previously, later (e.g., We entered the hotel we had stayed at previously.)

  • Listing: first, then, next, finally (e.g., First, add the sugar to the butter. Then, break the egg.)

  • Resultative: since, consequently, therefore (e.g., It began to rain. Consequently, I could not go for the walk which I had been looking forward to.)

  • Concessive: nonetheless, anyhow, anyway, however (e.g., Mina likes soft drinks. However, she agrees that water is the healthier choice.)

  • Inference: otherwise, then, in that case (e.g., You do not want this bag? Can I take it, then?)

  • Summative: altogether, overall (e.g., It rained a lot but we had fun. Overall, it was a good holiday.)


Use conjunctions for repetition of structures (e.g., I came. I saw. I conquered.)





Punctuation

Revise, proofread and edit longer written texts for faulty punctuation.

Revise, proofread and edit longer written texts for faulty punctuation.

Revise, proofread and edit longer written texts for faulty punctuation on ones own or with the help of virtual tools and software.

Revise, proofread and edit longer written texts for faulty punctuation on ones own or with the help of virtual tools and software.

Recognize and use comma to mark a dependent word or word group that breaks the continuity of the sentence.

Recognize and use comma to mark a dependent word or word group that breaks the continuity of the sentence.

Recognize and use comma to mark a dependent word or word group that breaks the continuity of the sentence.

Recognize and use comma to mark a dependent word or word group that breaks the continuity of the sentence.

Recognize and use colon between two independent groups not joined by a connecting word, when the first group points forward to the second for all intents and purposes.

Recognize and use colon between two independent groups not joined by a connecting word, when the first group points forward to the second for all intents and purposes.

Recognize and use colon between two independent groups not joined by a connecting word, when the first group points forward to the second for all intents and purposes.

Recognize and use colon between two independent groups not joined by a connecting word, when the first group points forward to the second for all intents and purposes.

Demonstrate the correct use of semicolons in a variety of sentences and explain when to use a semicolon.

Demonstrate the correct use of semicolons in a variety of sentences and explain when to use a semicolon.

Demonstrate the correct use of semicolons in a variety of sentences and explain when to use a semicolon.


Correct errors in semicolon usage.

Demonstrate the correct use of semicolons in a variety of sentences and explain when to use a semicolon.


Correct errors in semicolon usage.

Properly place quotation marks around dialogue and borrowed words.


Use quotation marks with titles of short works, definitions, words used in special ways, and original words.


Properly place quotation marks around dialogue and borrowed words.


Use quotation marks with titles of short works, definitions, words used in special ways, and original words.


Properly place quotation marks around dialogue and borrowed words.


Use quotation marks with titles of short works, definitions, words used in special ways, and original words.


Correctly incorporate other punctuation with quotations.

Properly place quotation marks around dialogue and borrowed words.


Use quotation marks with titles of short works, definitions, words used in special ways, and original words.


Correctly incorporate other punctuation with quotations.

Recognize compound words that require hyphens all the time and those that require hyphens due to specific situations.


Learn how to use hyphens in writing numbers.


Learn which prefixes and suffixes require the use of a hyphen.

Recognize compound words that require hyphens all the time and those that require hyphens due to specific situations.


Learn how to use hyphens in writing numbers.


Learn which prefixes and suffixes require the use of a hyphen.

Recognize compound words that require hyphens all the time and those that require hyphens due to specific situations.


Learn how to use hyphens in writing numbers.


Learn which prefixes and suffixes require the use of a hyphen.

Recognize compound words that require hyphens all the time and those that require hyphens due to specific situations.


Learn how to use hyphens in writing numbers.


Learn which prefixes and suffixes require the use of a hyphen.

Understand and use dashes as an indication of a pause in text, a change in direction of thought, and extra information in between a sentence.


Understand and use dashes to set off information in a sentence to show emphasis.

Understand and use dashes as an indication of a pause in text, a change in direction of thought, and extra information in between a sentence.


Understand and use dashes to set off information in a sentence to show emphasis.

Understand and use dashes as an indication of a pause in text, a change in direction of thought, and extra information in between a sentence.


Understand and use dashes to set off information in a sentence to show emphasis.

Understand and use dashes as an indication of a pause in text, a change in direction of thought, and extra information in between a sentence.


Understand and use dashes to set off information in a sentence to show emphasis.

Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements; meaning a part of a sentence that can be removed without changing the sentence's meaning.

Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements; meaning a part of a sentence that can be removed without changing the sentence's meaning.

Further use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements to create complex layers in writing; meaning a part of a sentence that can be removed without changing the sentence's meaning.

Further use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements to create complex layers in writing; meaning a part of a sentence that can be removed without changing the sentence's meaning.

Use ellipsis in a manner that includes:

  • Have, be, do, e.g., It looks like we have lost our way. Yes, we have (lost our way),

  • Contrasting tenses, e.g., I never liked mangoes. I still dont (like mangoes), and

  • Question words, e.g., Shall we talk? Why [should we talk]?).

Use ellipsis in a manner that includes:

  • Have, be, do, e.g., It looks like we have lost our way. Yes, we have (lost our way),

  • Contrasting tenses, e.g., I never liked mangoes. I still dont (like mangoes), and

  • Question words, e.g., Shall we talk? Why [should we talk]?).

Use ellipsis in a manner that includes:

  • Have, be, do, e.g., It looks like we have lost our way. Yes, we have (lost our way),

  • Contrasting tenses, e.g., I never liked mangoes. I still dont (like mangoes),

  • Question words, e.g., Shall we talk? Why [should we talk]?), and

  • Agreement, e.g., Mina enjoys playing tennis. So do I (enjoy playing tennis).

Use ellipsis in a manner that includes:

  • Have, be, do, e.g., It looks like we have lost our way. Yes, we have (lost our way),

  • Contrasting tenses, e.g., I never liked mangoes. I still dont (like mangoes),

  • Question words, e.g., Shall we talk? Why [should we talk]?), and

  • Agreement, e.g., Mina enjoys playing tennis. So do I (enjoy playing tennis).

Sentence Structure

Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style according to age and grade appropriation.

Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style according to age and grade appropriation.

Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style according to age and grade appropriation.

Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style according to age and grade appropriation.

Understand that conditionals are statements that are carried out when certain criteria are met.


Evaluate a conditional statement and predict the outcome, given an input.


Write conditional statements, defining criteria for certain actions.

Understand that conditionals are statements that are carried out when certain criteria are met.


Evaluate a conditional statement and predict the outcome, given an input.


Write conditional statements, defining criteria for certain actions.

Understand that conditionals are statements that are carried out when certain criteria are met.


Evaluate a conditional statement and predict the outcome, given an input.


Write conditional statements, defining criteria for certain actions.

Understand that conditionals are statements that are carried out when certain criteria are met.


Evaluate a conditional statement and predict the outcome, given an input.


Write conditional statements, defining criteria for certain actions.

Understand and use reported speech for statements with or without tense change.

Change sentence type (from direct to indirect and vice versa for both).

Understand and use reported speech for statements with or without tense change.

Change sentence type (from direct to indirect and vice versa for both, passive to active and vice versa for both).

Understand and use reported speech for statements with or without tense change.

Change sentence type for appropriate modes of communication for all intents and purposes.

Understand and use reported speech for statements with or without tense change.

Change sentence type for appropriate modes of communication for all intents and purposes.

Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments, run-ons, and misplaced and dangling modifiers.

Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments, run-ons, and misplaced and dangling modifiers.

Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments, run-ons, and misplaced and dangling modifiers, and explain rule.

Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments, run-ons, and misplaced and dangling modifiers, and explain rule.

Interjections

Understand interjection as the eighth of the eight parts of speech:

Noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.


Use interjections correctly in any sentence.

Understand interjection as the eighth of the eight parts of speech:

Noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.


Use interjections correctly in any sentence.

Understand interjection as the eighth of the eight parts of speech:

Noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.


Use interjections correctly in any sentence.

Understand interjection as the eighth of the eight parts of speech:

Noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.


Use interjections correctly in any sentence.

Word Functions

Recognize and use one word as different parts of speech in a sentence, i.e., noun as verb, noun as adjective, etc.

Recognize and use one word as different parts of speech in a sentence, i.e., noun as verb, noun as adjective, etc.

Recognize and use one word as different parts of speech in a sentence, i.e., noun as verb, noun as adjective, etc.

Recognize and use one word as different parts of speech in a sentence, i.e., noun as verb, noun as adjective, etc.

Transitional Devices

Demonstrate understanding of transitional devices that show comparison, contrast, reason, concession, condition, emphasis.

Demonstrate understanding of transitional devices that show comparison, contrast, reason, concession, condition, emphasis.

Examine and interpret transitional devices that show comparison, contrast, reason, concession, condition, emphasis.

Examine and interpret transitional devices that show comparison, contrast, reason, concession, condition, emphasis.

Active and Passive Voice

Identify the uses of active and passive voice to infer meaning of what is written and what the writer wanted to convey.


Understand that to bring attention to the doer, use the passive voice; and to put the focus on the action, use the active voice.

Identify the uses of active and passive voice to infer meaning of what is written and what the writer wanted to convey.


Understand that to bring attention to the doer, use the passive voice; and to put the focus on the action, use the active voice.


Identify the uses of active and passive voice to infer meaning of what is written and what the writer wanted to convey.


Understand that to bring attention to the doer, use the passive voice; and to put the focus on the action, use the active voice.


Identify the uses of active and passive voice to infer meaning of what is written and what the writer wanted to convey.


Understand that to bring attention to the doer, use the passive voice; and to put the focus on the action, use the active voice.


Recognize and use passive voice for various purposes, i.e., notices and instructions.

Recognize and use passive voice for various purposes, i.e., notices and instructions.

Recognize and use passive voice for various purposes in academic, professional and personal situations.

Recognize and use passive voice for various purposes in academic, professional and personal situations.

Further Grammatical Concepts

Identify and use function of direct and indirect speech in all types of sentences.

Identify and use function of direct and indirect speech in all types of sentences.



Identify, use and analyse function of direct and indirect speech in all types of sentences.

Identify, use and analyse function of direct and indirect speech in all types of sentences.

Recognize and analyse the rules of, and change the narration of statements, requests/orders and questions.

Recognize and analyse the rules of, and change the narration of statements, requests/orders and questions.

Recognize, analyse and comment on the rules of, and change the narration of statements, requests/orders and questions.

Recognize, analyse and comment with personal opinion on the rules of, and change the narration of statements, requests/orders and questions.

Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.

Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.

Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood and explain rule.

Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood and explain rule.

Use error analysis to: identify, define, and edit errors.

Use error analysis to: identify, define, and edit errors.

Use error analysis to: identify, define, and edit errors, and explain rule.

Use error analysis to: identify, define, and edit errors, and explain rule.

Domain: Writing Skills

Standard #1: Develop writing readiness for a range of purposes in various writing categories, through written expression, accuracy in letter/word formation, and spelling.

Benchmark I:

Produce through practice the learned mechanics of writing as the basics of sentence construction and paragraph writing.

Benchmark I:

Produce through practice the learned mechanics of writing as the basics of sentence construction and paragraph writing, selecting ideas for writing that include but are not limited to personal or familiar topics, and literary or informational topics of increasing complexity.

Use accurate and

consistent spelling to age-/ year level-appropriate high-frequency words, including non-decodable words, function words and high-interest words, and to word derivatives (e.g., changing the class of a word by adding a suffix or prefix) and inflection patterns (e.g., tense and plural markers).


Use accurate and consistent spelling to age-/ year level-appropriate high-frequency words, including non-decodable words, function words and high-interest words and use print and non-print resources, by applying dictionary skills, looking up glossaries in informational/functional texts, and looking up words in a dictionary or in a word processing software.


Use accurate and consistent spelling to age-/ year level-appropriate high frequency words, including new vocabulary, keeping grammatical conventions in mind, following rules of syntax and tenses.


Use accurate and consistent spelling to age-/ year level-appropriate high-frequency words, including new vocabulary, keeping grammatical conventions in mind, following rules of syntax and tenses.


Generate and select ideas for writing and representing for a variety of purposes, audiences, contexts and cultures after brainstorming, structuring, mind mapping, note-taking.


Select personal or familiar topics (e.g., about self, familiar persons and objects, and personal experiences).

Generate and select ideas for writing and representing for a variety of purposes, audiences, contexts and cultures after brainstorming, structuring, mind mapping, note-taking.


Select personal or familiar topics (e.g., about self, familiar persons and objects, and personal experiences).


Select literary or informational topics of increasing complexity.


Generate and select ideas for writing and representing for a variety of purposes, audiences, contexts and cultures after brainstorming, structuring, mind mapping, note-taking.


Select personal or familiar topics (e.g., about self, familiar persons and objects, and personal experiences).


Select literary or informational topics of increasing complexity.


Select literary or informational topics of increasing complexity, added to a higher level of argumentative/persuasive writing.

Generate and select ideas for writing and representing for a variety of purposes, audiences, contexts and cultures after brainstorming, structuring, mind mapping, note-taking.


Select personal or familiar topics (e.g., about self, familiar persons and objects, and personal experiences).


Select literary or informational topics of increasing complexity.


Select literary or informational topics of increasing complexity, added to a higher level of argumentative/persuasive writing

Benchmark II:

Employ the use of processes of planning, drafting and editing, with opportunities for joint construction with the teacher and peers, and collaborative and independent writing using a range of technologies (i.e. visual, auditory).

Benchmark II:

Employ the use of processes of planning, drafting and editing, with opportunities for joint construction with the teacher and peers, and collaborative and independent writing using a range of technologies (i.e. visual, auditory) that refer to selecting organisational patterns appropriate to purpose, audience, context and culture.

Write multiple paragraphs on a single topic, by organising facts, ideas and/or points of view in a way appropriate to the mode of delivery, purpose and audience (e.g., using graphics for succinct presentation of information) as a first draft.


Write multiple paragraphs on a single topic, as well as plan how to support the key message of a text with factual/descriptive details

and/or examples appropriate to purpose, audience, context and culture as a first draft.

Write multiple paragraphs on a single topic, by ensuring coherence in a text by selecting organisational patterns appropriate to purpose, audience, context and culture, e.g.,

  • Sequence in chronological order

  • Categorising and classifying

  • Sequencing in order of priority/importance (e.g., steps in a process)

  • Relaying cause and effect

  • Comparing and contrasting


Develop the plot in a narrative (e.g., series of events building towards the complication and resolution)


Support ideas and points of view in a text, by integrating selected visual and/or audio resources that enhance the clarity of the intended meaning.

Write multiple paragraphs on a single topic, by ensuring coherence in a text by selecting organisational patterns appropriate to purpose, audience, context and culture, e.g.,

  • Sequence in chronological order

  • Categorising and classifying

  • Sequencing in order of priority/importance (e.g., steps in a process)

  • Relaying cause and effect

  • Comparing and contrasting


Develop the plot in a narrative (e.g., series of events building towards the complication and resolution)


Support ideas and points of view in a text, by integrating selected visual and/or audio resources that enhance the clarity of the intended meaning.

Add adequate supporting detail to the main idea.


Express feelings and thoughts through freewriting on self-selected topics, using selected emotive/sensory details.


Develop characterisation in a narrative using literary techniques (e.g., direct speech)


Use key words, phrases or clauses to introduce the main idea in a paragraph.

Add adequate supporting detail to the main idea.


Express feelings and thoughts through freewriting on self-selected topics, using selected emotive/sensory details.


Develop characterisation in a narrative using literary techniques (e.g., direct speech)


Use key words, phrases or clauses to introduce the main idea in a paragraph.


Elaborate on, explain and/or justify the main idea of a paragraph by providing relevant factual, descriptive, emotive or sensory details and/or examples.

Add adequate supporting detail to the main idea.


Express feelings and thoughts through freewriting on self-selected topics, using selected emotive/sensory details.


Develop characterisation in a narrative using literary techniques (e.g., direct speech)


Use key words, phrases or clauses to introduce the main idea in a paragraph.


Elaborate on, explain and/or justify the main idea of a paragraph by providing relevant factual, descriptive, emotive or sensory details and/or examples.


Use appropriate cohesive devices (e.g., connectors, pronouns, repetition of vocabulary or grammatical structures) to:

  • Indicate relations between paragraphs/ sentences, and between the main idea of a

  • paragraph and the key message of a text.

Add adequate supporting detail to the main idea.


Express feelings and thoughts through freewriting on self-selected topics, using selected emotive/sensory details.


Develop characterisation in a narrative using literary techniques (e.g., direct speech)


Use key words, phrases or clauses to introduce the main idea in a paragraph.


Elaborate on, explain and/or justify the main idea of a paragraph by providing relevant factual, descriptive, emotive or sensory details and/or examples.


Use appropriate cohesive devices (e.g., connectors, pronouns, repetition of vocabulary or grammatical structures) to:

  • Indicate relations between paragraphs/ sentences, and between the main idea of a

  • paragraph and the key message of a text

  • Express the function of a paragraph with reference to the text.

Add personal opinion and critique, select and use language for effect to create/recount, describe experiences/events/topics.

Add personal opinion and critique, select and use language for effect to create/recount, describe experiences/events/topics

and/or persuade the reader to accept the writers point of view/proposed action, e.g., through appropriate and varied:

  • Sentence lengths and structures (e.g., simple, compound and complex sentences)

  • Vocabulary (e.g., words and phrases for providing information, verbs for describing actions, adjectives for describing persons in characterisation)

  • Sound devices (e.g., rhyme, alliteration, consonance, assonance)

  • Typographical and visual features (e.g., arrangement of text in a particular shape in poetry, letter/word position, line length and font type, colour and size)

  • Literary language (e.g., similes, metaphors)

Add personal opinion and critique, select and use language for effect to create/recount, describe experiences/events/topics

and/or persuade the reader to accept the writers point of view/proposed action, e.g., through appropriate and varied:

  • Sentence lengths and structures (e.g., simple, compound and complex sentences)

  • Vocabulary (e.g., words and phrases for providing information, verbs for describing actions, adjectives for describing persons in characterisation)

  • Sound devices (e.g., rhyme, alliteration, consonance, assonance, cacophony)

  • Typographical and visual features (e.g., arrangement of text in a particular shape in poetry, letter/word position, line length and font type, colour and size)

  • Literary language (e.g., similes, metaphors)

Add personal opinion and critique, select and use language for effect to create/recount, describe experiences/events/topics

and/or persuade the reader to accept the writers point of view/proposed action, e.g., through appropriate and varied:

  • Sentence lengths and structures (e.g., simple, compound and complex sentences)

  • Vocabulary (e.g., words and phrases for providing information, verbs for describing actions, adjectives for describing persons in characterisation)

  • Sound devices (e.g., rhyme, alliteration, consonance, assonance, cacophony, harmony)

  • Typographical and visual features (e.g., arrangement of text in a particular shape in poetry, letter/word position, line length and font type, colour and size)

  • Literary language (e.g., similes, metaphors)

Highlight direct quotes and opinions in quotation marks to ensure proper referencing in writing.

Highlight direct quotes, opinions, information from researches, and empirical data in quotation marks to ensure proper referencing in writing.

Highlight direct quotes, opinions, information from researches, and empirical data in quotation marks to ensure proper referencing in writing, and build a reference page for theses.

Highlight direct quotes, opinions, information from researches, and empirical data in quotation marks to ensure proper referencing in writing, and build a reference page for theses.

Benchmark III:

Furthering understanding of and writing that presents 1) arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant, 2) informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately, and 3) narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured events for both directed and creative writing requirements.

Benchmark III:

Furthering understanding of and writing that presents 1) arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant, 2) informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately, and 3) narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured events for both directed and creative writing requirements, paying close attention to organization, and style that are appropriate to the task.

Write an argument using the process approach - brainstorm, mind mapping, writing a first draft, seeking peer feedback, developing a final draft.

Write an argument or persuade by presenting, explaining and justifying own of view/proposed action, so as to persuade the reader to accept the point of view or action by:

  • Stating own point of view/proposed action in the opening to orientate the reader

  • Elaborating on/explaining own point of view/proposed action with relevant examples/evidence

  • Restating own of view/proposed action and/or key points in the conclusion

  • Using appropriate text features (e.g., title, bullets/numbering)

Write an argument or persuade by presenting, explaining and justifying own of view/proposed action, so as to persuade the reader to accept the point of view or action by:

  • Stating own point of view/proposed action in the opening to orientate the reader

  • Elaborating on/explaining own point of view/proposed action with relevant examples/evidence

  • Restating own of view/proposed action and/or key points in the conclusion

  • Using appropriate text features (e.g., title, bullets/numbering)

Write an argument or persuade by presenting, explaining and justifying own of view/proposed action, so as to persuade the reader to accept the point of view or action by:

  • Stating own point of view/proposed action in the opening to orientate the reader

  • Elaborating on/explaining own point of view/proposed action with relevant examples/evidence

  • Restating own of view/proposed action and/or key points in the conclusion

  • Using appropriate text features (e.g., title, bullets/numbering)

Write a mystery or action story, using the elements of beginning, middle, end, characters, setting, while using the process approach of writing - brainstorm, mind mapping, writing a first draft, seeking peer feedback, developing a final draft.

Write and narrate situations, express feelings and convey points of view about the world

and/or fictional worlds by:

  • Describing the setting and developing the plot (e.g., event/s building towards the complication and resolution)

  • Using first-person or third-person pronouns consistently

  • Using literary techniques for characterisation (e.g., direct speech)

  • Describing characters with elaboration to convey, e.g.,

  • Feelings and thoughts

  • Physical appearance

  • Action (e.g., body movements)

Write and further narrate situations, express feelings and convey points of view about the world and/or fictional worlds by:

  • Describing the setting and developing the plot (e.g., event/s building towards the complication and resolution)

  • Using first-person or third-person pronouns consistently

  • Using literary techniques for characterisation (e.g., direct speech)

  • Describing characters with elaboration to convey, e.g.,

  • Feelings and thoughts

  • Physical appearance

  • Action (e.g., body movements)

Write and proficiently narrate situations, express feelings and convey points of view about the world and/or fictional worlds by:

  • Describing the setting and developing the plot (e.g., event/s building towards the complication and resolution)

  • Using first-person or third-person pronouns consistently

  • Using literary techniques for characterisation (e.g., direct speech)

  • Describing characters with elaboration to convey, e.g.,

  • Feelings and thoughts

  • Physical appearance

  • Action (e.g., body movements)

Write simple descriptive paragraphs (giving physical description and characteristics/traits of a person/object/place moving from general to specific), using correct capitalization, punctuation and spelling, by using the process approach - brainstorm, mind mapping, writing a first draft.

Write a vivid essay, describing with selected factual/sensory details the setting, experiences, or series of events:

  • Describing in the first person the writers or characters feelings and thoughts

  • Reflecting in a commentary why the experiences/events described are memorable or worth recounting.

Write a vivid essay, describing with selected factual/sensory details the setting, experiences, or series of events:

  • Describing in the first person the writers or characters feelings and thoughts

  • Reflecting in a commentary why the experiences/events described are memorable or worth recounting.

Write a vivid essay, describing with selected factual/sensory details the setting, experiences, or series of events:

  • Describing in the first person the writers or characters feelings and thoughts

  • Reflecting in a commentary why the experiences/events described are memorable or worth recounting.

Write informal and formal letters to people in extended social and academic environment for various purposes. They could be: thank you notes, greeting or invitation cards, letters or email to a pen-pal, parent or teacher, notices to the class providing information on an event.

Write informal and formal letters to people in extended social and academic environment for various purposes. They could provide information, explain a situation and/or express points of view by:

  • Describing, elaborating on and/or supporting/explaining key points

  • Applying the appropriate format (e.g., salutation in letters/email, signing off for notes/letters)


Write informal and formal letters to people in extended social and academic environment for various purposes. They could provide information, explain a situation and/or express points of view by:

  • Describing, elaborating on and/or supporting/explaining key points

  • Applying the appropriate format (e.g., salutation in letters/email, signing off for notes/letters)

  • Using appropriate text features (e.g., section headings in letters/email, main and sub-headings, bullets/numbering)

Write informal and formal letters to people in extended social and academic environment for various purposes. They could provide information, explain a situation and/or express points of view by:

  • Describing, elaborating on and/or supporting/explaining key points

  • Applying the appropriate format (e.g., salutation in letters/email, signing off for notes/letters)

  • Using appropriate text features (e.g., section headings in letters/email, main and sub-headings, bullets/numbering)

Write a formal letter/email of condolence, or for applying for leave of absence, or requesting provisions.

Write a formal letter/email of condolence, or for applying for leave of absence, or requesting provisions or writing about events/occurrences which are a menace to society.

Write a formal letter/email of condolence, or for applying for leave of absence, or requesting provisions or writing about events/occurrences which are a menace to society.

Write a formal letter/email of condolence, or for applying for leave of absence, or requesting provisions or writing about events/occurrences which are a menace to society.

Use chronological/sequential/ spatial order of arranging detail, and ensure coherence in writing by slecting organisational patterns appropriate to purpose, audience, context, and culture:

  • Sequence in chronological order

  • Categorise and classify

Use chronological/sequential/ spatial order of arranging detail, and ensure coherence in writing by:

  • Selecting organisational patterns appropriate to purpose, audience, context, and culture:

  • Sequence in chronological order

  • Categorise and classify

  • Sequence in order of priority/importance (e.g., steps in a process, placing the key message first in a proposal)

  • Cause and effect

  • Compare and contrast

Use chronological/sequential/ spatial order of arranging detail, and ensure coherence in writing by:

  • Selecting organisational patterns appropriate to purpose, audience, context, and culture:

  • Sequence in chronological order

  • Categorise and classify

  • Sequence in order of priority/importance (e.g., steps in a process, placing the key message first in a proposal)

  • Cause and effect

  • Compare and contrast

  • Using language signals to help the reader follow the development of ideas and/ or line of argument (e.g., at the beginning of a paragraph: ‘The reasons for this observation are...)


Use chronological/sequential/ spatial order of arranging detail, and ensure coherence in writing by:

  • Selecting organisational patterns appropriate to purpose, audience, context, and culture:

  • Sequence in chronological order

  • Categorise and classify

  • Sequence in order of priority/importance (e.g., steps in a process, placing the key message first in a proposal)

  • Cause and effect

  • Compare and contrast

  • Using language signals to help the reader follow the development of ideas and/ or line of argument (e.g., at the beginning of a paragraph: ‘The reasons for this observation are...)


Write a poem in multiple stanzas, telling a story or otherwise.


Express feelings and thoughts, and/or experiment with sound, images and language by:

  • Describing persons, objects, experiences or events with emotive/sensory details and literary language.

Write a poem in multiple stanzas telling a story or otherwise.


Express feelings and thoughts, and/or experiment with sound, images and language by:

  • Describing persons, objects, experiences or events with emotive/sensory details and literary language.

Write a poem in multiple stanzas telling a story or otherwise.


Express feelings and thoughts, and/or experiment with sound, images and language by:

  • Describing persons, objects, experiences or events with emotive/sensory details and literary language,

  • Using sound devices and/or typographical and visual features (e.g., word position in a shape poem, lines, stanzas).

Write a poem in multiple stanzas telling a story or otherwise.


Express feelings and thoughts, and/or experiment with sound, images and language by:

  • Describing persons, objects, experiences or events with emotive/sensory details and literary language,

  • Using sound devices and/or typographical and visual features (e.g., word position in a shape poem, lines, stanzas).

Use paraphrasing skills to paraphrase stanzas in a poem.

Use paraphrasing skills to paraphrase stanzas in a poem.

Use paraphrasing skills to paraphrase stanzas in a poem and synthesise the content for each to create an overall understanding of the poem read.

Use paraphrasing skills to paraphrase stanzas in a poem and synthesise the content for each to create an overall understanding of the poem read.

Write an essay or a narrative to compare persons, objects and places

Write an essay or a narrative to compare persons, objects and places, also describing characters with elaboration to convey, e.g.,

  • Feelings and thoughts

  • Physical appearance

  • Action (e.g., body movements, facial expressions and subtle gestures)

  • Background and motivation


Write an essay or a narrative to compare persons, objects and places, also:

  • Describing characters with elaboration to convey, e.g.,

  • Feelings and thoughts

  • Physical appearance

  • Action (e.g., body movements, facial expressions and subtle gestures)

  • Background and motivation

  • Using literary techniques for characterisation (e.g., direct speech, interior monologue, behaviours reflecting personality) and to develop the plot (e.g., flashback, twist-in the tale, withholding information for suspense)

  • Describing characters with elaboration to convey depth.



Write an essay or a narrative to compare persons, objects and places, also:

  • Describing characters with elaboration to convey, e.g.,

  • Feelings and thoughts

  • Physical appearance

  • Action (e.g., body movements, facial expressions and subtle gestures)

  • Background and motivation

  • Using literary techniques for characterisation (e.g., direct speech, interior monologue, behaviours reflecting personality) and to develop the plot (e.g., flashback, twist-in the tale, withholding information for suspense)

  • Describing characters with elaboration to convey depth.


Write a paragraph of free writing in each category of academic and creative writing, i.e., expository, argumentative/persuasive, descriptive and narrative.

Write a paragraph of free writing as well as directed writing in each category of academic and creative writing, i.e., expository, argumentative/persuasive, descriptive and narrative.

Write a paragraph of free writing as well as directed writing in each category of academic and creative writing, i.e., expository, argumentative/persuasive, descriptive and narrative.

Write a paragraph of free writing as well as directed writing in each category of academic and creative writing, i.e., expository, argumentative/persuasive, descriptive and narrative.

Review, revise and proofread a paragraph to ensure that it has a topic sentence, supporting sentences, uses transition words to establish connection, includes an introductory and closing sentence, has correct grammar, spelling and punctuation.

Review, revise and proofread a paragraph to ensure that it has a topic sentence, supporting sentences, uses transition words to establish connection, includes an introductory and closing sentence, has correct grammar, spelling and punctuation.

Review, revise and proofread a paragraph to ensure that it has a topic sentence, supporting sentences, uses transition words to establish connection, includes an introductory and closing sentence, has correct grammar, spelling and punctuation.

Review, revise and proofread a paragraph to ensure that it has a topic sentence, supporting sentences, uses transition words to establish connection, includes an introductory and closing sentence, has correct grammar, spelling and punctuation.



**Advanced/Additional Student Learning Objects will be tracked in italics